History

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War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Results in a system that impoverishes the colonies for the benefit of Spain
Spread of ideas – Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Voltaire, Rousseau – and examples of revolutions in America and France – encourage independence movements

French and Indian/ Seven Years war

1754 - 1763

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

Rapid population growth single most important demographic change Drop in infant mortality rates due to improved public health Improved standards of living in western Europe

Change away from subsistence agriculture of the 17th and 18th centuries
Enclosure movement
Effect on production
Agricultural Revolution vital to the Industrial Revolution
Provides the food necessary for expanded population growth
Contributes surplus capital
Freed a number of workers from the land
Transformative effect on economy

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Legacy of the French and Indian/Seven Years’ War (1754-1763)
Economic disarray of the British Empire
King George III’s attempts at reform
Influence of the Enlightenment and difference of experiences
John Locke
Thomas Paine – “Common Sense”

Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations

1776

Thomas Malthus- An Essay on the Principle of Population

1798

Napoleon Crowns Himself Emperor

1804

-charismatic leader
Gains prominence for two reasons
-Revolution’s emphasis on promoting people of talent
-success on the battlefield
bases his rule on the notion of popular sovereignty
In short order manages to conquer most of Continental Europe
Partly because of the changes to military technology but also because of his bold leadership
Presented as the protector of the Revolution because he puts an end to internal and external threats

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

British Admiral Horatio Nelson was directly responsible for destroying two French fleets out from under Napoleon.

Series of Spanish American Upheavals

1806 - 1825

List of grievances is long – particularly related to trade

First Opium War

1839 - 1842

Taiping Rebellion

1851 - 1864

Inaugurates a period of great instability in China for the remainder of the 19th century
Can be seen as part of a cycle of peasant revolts but some have advanced a more existential explanation
Can be seen as a crisis of modernity
Problem of Christian missionaries and the influx of new ideas
Exacerbated by Western military force as demonstrated during Opium Wars
Claims the lives of over 20 million people – more than the First World War
Taiping movement taps into a collective moral crisis engendered by the growing pace of global change
Inability of the Manchu dynasty to effectively isolate China from outside world
Danger of rebellion forces the Qing dynasty to make more concessions to the West
Regional, rather than simply local, effects

Commodore Perry and the “opening” of Japan

1853

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

fought directly in Russia s backyard on the Black Sea, yet the Western forces won,
driving the Russian armies from their entrenched positions. (Each side lost about 250,000 troops in a
truly difficult struggle.) The loss was profoundly disturbing to Russian leadership, for the Western
powers won this little war not because of great tactics or inspired principles but because of their industrial
advantage. They had the ships to send masses of military supplies long distances, and their artillery
and other weapons were vastly superior to Russia s home-produced models. This severe blow to
a regime that prided itself on military vigor was a frightening portent for the future.
The Crimean War helped convince Russian leaders, including the new tsar, Alexander II, that
it was time for a change. Reform was essential, not to copy the West but to allow sufficient economic
adjustments for Russia to keep pace in the military arena. First and foremost, reform meant
some resolution of Russia s leading social issue, the issue that most distinguished Russian society
from that of the West: serfdom. Only if the status of serfs changed could Russia develop a more vigorous
and mobile labor force and so be able to industrialize. Russian concern about this issue paralleled
the attacks on slavery in the Americas in the same period, reflecting a desire to meet Western
humanitarian standards and a need for cheap, flexible labor.

Indian Mutiny

1857 - 1858

British influence in India all-pervasive. Indian Mutiny is the last “traditional” response to European rule by attempting to use military force to drive out the British
Importance of the Indian Army
Mainly composes of sepoys – indigenous troops, 8 out of 10 soldiers
Term “mutiny” underplays significance of event – this is a full blown war
Rebellion only suppressed with the assistance of loyal troops
Evolution of Indian nationalism

Japan -Meiji Restoration

1868

Victory achieved through force, not popular uprising
Goal: rebirth of Japan along Western lines
Believe that only through rapid and wholesale modernization that Japan will be strong enough to end the humiliation
Battle cry: “Rich Country, Strong Army”

Feudal structure ended in Japan

1871

reorganization begun
No set plan in place; a lot of trial and error
Overriding goal remains a strong state

New Imperialism

1880 - 1914

Happened at an increased speed
Extent of reach
Education and Institutions not focused on as in past
Deliberately inhibited development
Focused on the exploitation of land, resources, raw materials, and cheap labor.
For profit of western power

The Imperial System

1900 - 1930

Stated goal of European imperialism: Provide “good government”
Essentially means:
Law and order
Strong authoritarian government
Small army and police force to put down rebellions
Protect life and property
Not so much attention paid to
Health care
Education
Africa brought into the world economy on Europe’s terms

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Emerging Japanese imperialism brings Russian and Japanese ambitions into conflict
Question of when not if there will be a war
Partition of China
Presence of Russian troops in Manchuria

Attack at Port Arthur – February 2, 1904
Battle of Tsushima (1905) pushes Russia out of the war
Japan emerges with a valuable foothold in China
Russia humiliated and in the throes of a revolution