During the dark ages of Greece, the invasion of the Dorians occurred. Consequently, there was a writing/literature loss among the Greeks.
Sparta conquered Messenia and the Messenians became helots. However, the Messenians revolted and defeated Sparta. Therefore, Sparta dedicated themselves into becoming a strong city-state.
Persia wants to capture Greek city-states for gain of land and resources.
The Battle of Marathon ended the ten year war between Greece and Persia. The Greeks defeated the Persians with military technique and their use of the phalanx military formation. A notable hero of the Battle of Marathon was Pheidippides, who ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens to warn the Athenians the Persians were on their way. As a result, the Athenians were capable of defending themselves more efficiently.
The son of Darius, Xerxes, seeks revenge on Athens for his father's death from the 1st Persian War.
The Spartans sacrifice themselves in the Battle of Thermopylae in order to slow down the Persians and save the Athenians.
The Athenians won the Persian War with strategy, using Naval technique and their advantage of knowledge of the sea.
Athens was the leader in the Delian League, grew wealthy because of tax, and formed a mini-Greek empire.
The period of growth in Athens marked artistic and literacy supremacy and a strong democratic government with the guidance of a strong and powerful leader, Pericles. Pericles strengthened democracy by increasing the amount of paid public officials and focusing on direct democracy. Pericles also rebuilt the navy and worked through the Delian League. Finally, Pericles was willing to pay for beauty and culture, glorifying Athens.
This war was fought between Athens and Sparta because Sparta opposed of the Delian League. Athens was defeated and Sparta took over the Delian League.
The king of Macedonia (Philip II) wanted to conquer Greece. The Macedonian invasion transformed peasants into a well trained army and transformed Greece into a monarchy with no independent city-states.
Alexander continued his father's plan to invade Persia and Egypt and was successful. Alexander's men (army) liked him because he fought beside them and treated them as equals. Alexander named city "Alexandria" after everywhere he conquered.
The empire was divided into three (Macedonia/Greece, Egypt, and Persia). The Hellenistic culture began to spread.