Ancient Greece

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Dark Ages of Greece

1200 BC - 750 BC

During the dark ages of Greece, the invasion of the Dorians occurred. Consequently, there was a writing/literature loss among the Greeks.

Sparta Dominates Messenians

725 BC - 650 BC

Sparta conquered Messenia and the Messenians became helots. However, the Messenians revolted and defeated Sparta. Therefore, Sparta dedicated themselves into becoming a strong city-state.

First Persian War

500 BCE - 490 BC

Persia wants to capture Greek city-states for gain of land and resources.

Battle of Marathon

490 BC

The Battle of Marathon ended the ten year war between Greece and Persia. The Greeks defeated the Persians with military technique and their use of the phalanx military formation. A notable hero of the Battle of Marathon was Pheidippides, who ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens to warn the Athenians the Persians were on their way. As a result, the Athenians were capable of defending themselves more efficiently.

Second Persian War

480 BC - 476 BC

The son of Darius, Xerxes, seeks revenge on Athens for his father's death from the 1st Persian War.

Battle of Thermopylae

480 BC

The Spartans sacrifice themselves in the Battle of Thermopylae in order to slow down the Persians and save the Athenians.

Naval Battle

476 BC

The Athenians won the Persian War with strategy, using Naval technique and their advantage of knowledge of the sea.

Golden Age of Athens

475 BC - 430 BC

Athens was the leader in the Delian League, grew wealthy because of tax, and formed a mini-Greek empire.

The Rule of Pericles

460 BC - 429 BC

The period of growth in Athens marked artistic and literacy supremacy and a strong democratic government with the guidance of a strong and powerful leader, Pericles. Pericles strengthened democracy by increasing the amount of paid public officials and focusing on direct democracy. Pericles also rebuilt the navy and worked through the Delian League. Finally, Pericles was willing to pay for beauty and culture, glorifying Athens.

Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

This war was fought between Athens and Sparta because Sparta opposed of the Delian League. Athens was defeated and Sparta took over the Delian League.

Macedonian Invasion

359 BC - 338 BC

The king of Macedonia (Philip II) wanted to conquer Greece. The Macedonian invasion transformed peasants into a well trained army and transformed Greece into a monarchy with no independent city-states.

Conquest of Alexander

356 BC - 323 BC

Alexander continued his father's plan to invade Persia and Egypt and was successful. Alexander's men (army) liked him because he fought beside them and treated them as equals. Alexander named city "Alexandria" after everywhere he conquered.

Alexander's Legacy

323 BC

The empire was divided into three (Macedonia/Greece, Egypt, and Persia). The Hellenistic culture began to spread.