The Dorians conquered Mycenae. They lacked a stong government and trade. We have no written documents from this time because the Dorians could not read or write.
Important Greek writers came about and brought epics and myths. These authors include Homer and Hesiod who wrote historic peices such as the Odyssey and Illiad. Oral stories are passed down through generations and Mythology is written which unites the city states. Demonstrates the Greek arete.
Persia wanted to conquer Greek city-states surrounding the area of Anatolia. After Persia started to invade small city-states with its overwhelmingly large army, Athens sends supplies over to aid the city-states which leads them to victory.
The Persian ruler, Darius II, was upset about the Persian's devastating loss. He then ordered the army to invade Athens to get revenge after helping the Greek city-states defeat the Persians. The army starts by sending their army of 25,000 men into Marathon. After they were invaded, a messenger ran to Athens to warn them of the incoming Persians. Athens use the phalanx and ultimately finish victorious.
In Thermopylae around 480 B.C., 7000 Greeks, 300 of which were Spartans fought Persia's massive army for three days. It was known that there was no hope for the Greeks to acheive victory, so the Spartans sent the rest of the army home and sacrificed their lives so that the others could prepare.
After the Spartans sacrificed their lives, Athens had time to prepare for the upcoming battle. Knowing the Persians were not skilled at sea, they planned the war to include sailing through intricate pathways that the Persians would not be able to navigate. Athens used the Persian's weakness at sea to achieved victory.
After Athens successfully defeate Persia, it had an increase it confidence, wealth, and arrogance. Because of it's victory, it became the leader of the Delian League and built a mini Greek empire. Athen's recent prosperity, evoked a new found ego. Thinking they were the best Greek city-state, Athens taxed all other city-states in Greece.
Pericles was a war veteran and honorable statesman who ruled during Greece's Golden Age. He came up with three goals which immensely helped strengthen Democracy, strengthen the Athenian Navy, and expand the wealth and power of Athens.
Athens grew in wealth and strength. New forms of art were developed and it was a time of literary supremacy. The Parthenon was built which redefined Ancient Greek architecture. It was a time that clearly represented the Greek arete.
The Spartans become more and more annoyed with Athens’s success and abundant narcissism. As their anger builds up, they decide to attack Athens, in hopes of taking their triumph away from them. The Athenians lose 1/3 of their population due to a devastating plague, but the Spartans become at loss as well after their general, Pericles, dies. A temporary truce is put in place in 421 B.C., but the war is resumed in 415 B.C. when Athens invades Syracuse, a close Spartan ally. The Spartans arrive at Syracuse and destroy the Athenian army who then surrenders to Sparta. In effect, Athensa loses its power and wealth and the Delian League is replaced.
Phillip II leads his army to invade and eventually conquer Macedonain city-states. As a result the government is dramaically changed, the army is strengthened, new trade routes are available, wealth is boosted, and culture expands.
Alexander was an intelligent and militaristic man who was taught by Aristotle. He became the ruler of Macedonia at the age of twenty and successfully conquered Persia and Egypt. He built multiple cities and strengthened his empire. He died of illness after an unsuccessful invasion of Indus Valley.