The Mycenaean Civilization died off when the Dorians invade. The Dorians were completely illiterate and caused the economy to decline. They were a nomadic tribe and were not very successful in their invasion.
The Trojan War was between Mycenae and Troy. The Judgement of Paris began the war and Troy was successful because of their Trojan Horse. They went into the land of Mycenae and disguised the horse as a sign of defeat but then attacked and conquered the land.
Persia wanted to control each individual Greek city-state in Anatolia. Greece ended up revolting and Athens sends aids to increase their probability of being victorious. This action surprises Persia which encourages them to seek revenge.
Pheidippides ran an outstanding 26.2 miles from the land of Marathon to Athens in order to tell his people to prepare for the attack of the Persians. This great war hero dies in the process of running to the Athenians and the final blow to Persian was taken.
Athens had several advantages and disadvantages throughout the Persian Wars. Athens was very mountainous which impeded the process of Persia invading. Persia sent 25,000 men across the sea and wound up in a place called Marathon which just happened to be 26.2 miles away from Athens. The Athenians caught on to the Persian's plan and attacked which resulted in their victory.
Athens positions themselves into a naval battle within their surrounding waters. This was a very smart decision on their part due to the fact that they focused on naval training and Persian didn't. They set up their trap near the Island of Salimis and Persia is unable to navigate in the narrow water passages of the island. Athens was successful and won.
Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle began the foundations of early philosophy. Their goal was to create education that could eventually reach arete. Socrates, for one, focused on individual reflection and he challenged authority. He also invented the Socratic Method in which the teacher asks his students questions. Plato focused on collective action, wrote "The Republic," and created The Academy. Lastly, Aristotle was a brilliant student of Plato and created the common used concept of syllogisms.
The Delian Legue was a group of Athenian city-states that came together to promise to one another that if they were ever attacked again, they would be protected. This league caused a great confidence boost in Greece and their culture despite the fact they became quite arrogant because of their success. Greece eventually grows very wealthy and builds their own mini empire.
The Peloponnesian War was between Athens and Sparta. Athens wanted to defend its leadership and their strategy was to avoid as many land battles as pssible. They wanted to retain their dignitiy so they had Sparta come to them. Sparta was angry at the power that the Athenian government had so they burned Athens' food supply and marched towards Athens. They are ready to fight around 430 B.C. and in the midst of fighting, Pericles died. Due to this drastic event, they call a truce to recollect themselves and return to war around 415 B.C.
Pericles was an honorable statesman that helped strengthen Athenian democracy. He paid and hired more people for the role of public officers and officials. He enabled everyone to vote and strongly emphasized his direct democracy. He also reassembled the Navy, increased taxes and strengthened the Delian League.
The Macedonian Invasion weakened city-states and eventually succumbed to Phillip and this resulted in a change in their government as well as the death of Phillip. He was stabbed at his own daughter's wedding and this encouraged Alexander to take action.
Persia was antagonistic towards Alexander and wanted to stop him. Nevertheless, Egypt welcomed Alexander as a liberator so he took that opportunity and created a city there named after himself called Alexandria. Alexandria had more Greek innovations rather than Egypt because of his influence on the country. Alexander died in the midst of marching towards Indus Valley and was unsuccessful. As a result, the empire divided into 3 and shared a new culture of "Hellenism."