Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle began the foundations of early philosophy. Their goal was to create education that could eventually reach arete. Socrates, for one, focused on individual reflection and he challenged authority. He also invented the Socratic Method in which the teacher asks his students questions. Plato focused on collective action, wrote "The Republic," and created The Academy. Lastly, Aristotle was a brilliant student of Plato and created the common used concept of syllogisms.