The French Revolution was a period of intense reform in France. The French were changed from having an absolute monarch in charge to a free, democratic and equal spirit. The French were also changed from having many areas controlled by many people including the Pope and Austria to one unified country. They had a new flag, a National Assembly, new hymns, a uniform French language and new uniform laws. They were a country reborn!
1804 - 1817
In 1804, Serbians perceived themselves as an independent state for the first time after 300 years. They united as one nation seeking religious freedom and liberty from the brutal Ottoman Empire.
Congress of Vienna
1814 - 1815
Representatives from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia gather to change maps' borders. The new regimes were autocratic. They did NOT tolerate criticism. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control newspapers, books, plays and songs.
Greek Declaration of Independence
1821 - 1829
Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire on January 1, 1822.
1830 - 1831
The Belgian Revolution was the uprising which led to the forming of Belgium. Belgium had successfully seceded from the Netherlands.
Giuseppe Mazzini Founds "Young Italy"
Giuseppe Mazzini Founds "Young Italy", a Italian Nationalist group that wanted to unite Italians for a new nation. In his own words he wanted "to constitute Italy, one, free, independent, republican nation.
Revolutions of 1848
1848 - 1849
The revolutions of 1848 were when numerous nationalists attempted to revolt against their respective countries and failed. The countries involved included Italy, France, Germany, Denmark, Hadsburg Empire, Switzerland, Hungary, Western Ukraine, Greater Poland, Danubian Principalities, Belgium and Ireland.
The Unification of Italy
1848 - 1870
The Unification of Italy began in 1815. Following the Congress of Vienna, a movement for Italian unity grew. In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini founded "Young Italy", a nationalist group. Then, in 1848, like all kings, the King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II, wanted to join additional territories to his Kingdom. The King enlisted Count Camillo Cavour as his Prime Minister to expand his Kingdom. Cavour began to make major changes to Sardinia including improving agriculture and building railroads. Cavour additionally began building up allies. Supported by their new ally France, in 1858, Sardinia gained control of the Austrian's Lombardy territory. The Lombardy victory inspired a wave of Nationalists overthrowing their local leaders. Meanwhile in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Naples and Siciliy), Giuseppe Garibaldi also wanted to have a united Italy. Garibaldi recruited 1,000 troops and Cavour supplied Garibaldi with weapons and two ships. With the supplies from Cavour, Garibaldi conquered Naples and Sicily. Garibaldi then did something very interesting. Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II and Emmanuel was crowned the King of Italy. The only two areas left outside of Italy's control was Rome and Venetia. Venetia was acquired from Germany and in 1861 Italy became a nation. Rome was gained in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. The Italians shared the common qualities of geography, history, language and culture.
Unrest in Austria-Hungary
1849 - 1882
The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867" established the semi-independent states of Hungary and Austria. The nationalism of German speakers in Austria created hostility between Germans and Czechs. The rise of nationalism in Romania and Serbia also created ethnic issues.
The Unification of Germany
1862 - 1871
The Unification of Germany began in 1862, when King William I made Otto von Bismarck the Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismarck first move was to build a huge Prussian Army. Then Bismarck wanted to start three wars. He started wars with France, Denmark and Austria. In 1864 Austria and Prussia then teamed up and seized the Schleswig and Holstein provinces of Denmark. Austria gained Holstein and Prussia gained Schleswig. In 1866, Bismarck started a random war with Austria and wins. The Austro-Prussian War lasted only seven weeks. In 1870, France and Prussia fought in the Franco-Prussian War and Prussia won. After all the wars had been fought, Prussia had a large portion of Europe in their control. In 1871, Germany was founded.
Reform and Revolution in Russia
February 23 1917 - October 26 1917
The Russian Revolutions began in February of 1917 when the government of Russia, in order to finance the war, had been printing millions of bills and by 1917 inflation had increased prices up to 4 times what they were in 1914. In the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin and the workers' Soviets, overthre the provisional government in Petrograd. The Bolshevik's appointed themselves as the leaders of various areas. A civil war began between the "Red" (Bolshevik's) and the "White" (anti-Bolshevik's). The Bolshevik's won. The Bolshevik victory eventually led to the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.