Long Term Causes of World War One


Meiji Restoration


Japan united under emperor, modernisation began.

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

War between France and Germany which resulted in Germany winning and becoming unified and France losing Alsace-Lorraine.


1880 - 1918

Nationalistic movement from Slavic people aiming to unite under the imperialistic powers.

Scramble for Africa

1881 - 1914

European powers expanded their empires in Africa.

Triple Alliance


Alliance between Germany, Austria/Hungary and Italy.

Wilhelm II Proclaimed Kaiser


Became leader of German Empire with imperialistic views -Germany should have "a place in the sun".

Spanish American War


USA gained territory in the Carribean from Spain.

Naval Arms Race

1898 - 1912

Germany constructed new fleets which challenged Britain's naval supremacy.

Berlin-Baghdad Railway


Built to increase German influence in Persian Gulf and gave them access to oil in Iraq. Threatened Britain and India.

First Moroccan Crisis

1905 - 1906

Britain backed France in Morocco's claims of independence against Germany.

Russo-Japanese War

1905 - 1906

Conflict between Russia and Japan over imperialism where Russia's major fleet was defeated.

1905 Revolution in Russia

1905 - 1906

War with Japan led to food shortages so many took to streets demanding reforms from Tsars.

Schlieffen Plan


German strategy designed to quickly defeat France to avoid two front war with Russia/France.

Triple Entente


Effective counter-balance to Triple Alliance: Britain, France, Russia.

Annexation of Bosnia

1908 - 1909

Austria/Hungary announced annexation of Bosnia and Russia was forced to back down form supporting Serbia.

Agadir Crisis


German gunboat Panther sailed into Agadir and France had to give up colonies on Congo.

First/Second Balkan Wars

1912 - 1913

Nationalistic conflicts fought between Balkan states to expand territory.