Thirteen British colonies rebelled against Great Britain for independence. The idea to become a seperate country from England was encouraged by enlightenment ideas from Europe. The colonies were receiving higher and higher taxes and no representation for the colonies in Great Britains parliment. The war went from 1776 to 1781 when the British surrendered to American forces in Yorktown. The revolution brought independence and created the United States of America.
1789 - 1799
Brought on by enlightenment ideas this liberal revolution took place in several different stages. The middle class rose up to gain control after deepening troubles with France's economy and food issues. King Louis XVI and his family were executed by the guillotine along with hundreds of thousands of other people. The French Revolution had mixed results, the monarchy was returned after the rise and fall of Napoleon, but the Right's of Man document, increased women's rights during the Reign of Terror, and complete overthrown of the monarchy that stunned the western world, epitomized the foundation of a new enlightened society based in liberty and equality. (generally speaking)
1791 - 1803
A product of the enlightenment ideas spreading across and down into Latin America area. Maroons led by Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines helped gain Hatitan independence from France and from slave owners. This revolution was successful and important as it gave the island's inhabitance freedom for blacks and not just whites.
War of Independence in Latin America
1810 - 1825
The Revolutionist movement reached Latin America in the form of several revolutions throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. These revoutions created modern independent countries including Mexico in Central America. The Spanish, French, and Portuguese influence remained, but a new society and mixed culture became prevalent along with violence and poverty for the newly autonomous lands.
War of Greek Independence
1821 - 1827
The Greeks fought for their independence from 1821-1832 against the Ottoman Empire. Again European Enlightenment with encouragement from the French Revolution gave Greeks a nationalistic attitudem, solidifying together a people who had long attempted to resist Ottoman rule. With the death of Rigas Feraios (a Greek philosopher who wrote extensively and called for a free, independent Balkan State) Greek people rose up and began armed conflict with Ottomans. With the aid of Russia, England, France and several other European countries eager to see the Ottoman's lose power, the Greek states gained independence, although their allies against the Turks gained political power in the region.
The Opium Wars
1839 - 1842
Great Britain wanted to have the upperhand in trade with China, but China was a stronger country than the other Asian counries Britain and other European countries had imperialized. So Great Britain imported opium and made the Chinese become addicted so they would trade lots of anything to get more opium. Chinese officials saw this as a huge problem and tried banning opium, but smugglers helped by the British continued to deliver into China. The physical or governmental war between China and England continued until 1860 when China signed a peace treaty to make trade favorable towards European countries.
1850 - 1864
A radical movement against the Qing Dynasty which had become filled with corrupt officials, had the wealthy owning most or all of the land and poor, and was, at the core, Manchus ruling over Chinese and suppressing the "real" Chinese culture. The rebellion had lots of support from native Chinese subjects and sought to abolish private property, create communal wealth, prohibit footbinding and concubinage, make free public education available, simplify written Chinese language, and give the masses the ability to read. An even more radical part of the Taiping Rebellion was the idea to create a democratic state and industrialize like the west and Japan. Slowly, though, the Taiping rebellion was suppressed.
1853 - 1856
A conflict between the Russian Empire v.s. the French, English, Ottomans, and Sardinia. This war was being fought mostly for power control of Ottoman lands. Considered one of the first modern wars in terms of tactics and caring for the wounded, it ended with a more unclear winner, but upset the balance of power between the "big four/five."
A rebellion in India between Indian soldiers working with the British and the British. New developments in weaponary made new rifle cartriges have pig fat inside them and the seopy's (India soldiers) would need to touch the cartiges with their mouths, but it was against their religion to eat or touch pig products. They requested different cartriges but were refused and so staged a mutiny/rebellion. Also contributing to their rebelling was the fact that Britain was basically controlling India and Indian people did not appreciate that. As a result of the Sepoy Rebellion, the East India Trading Company was dissolved and India could have its own administration with a British head ruler.
Unification of Italy
1859 - 1870
During the 19th century some Italians were unhappy with the results of the Congress of Vienna, one radical calling for the unification of Italy was Giuseppe Garibaldi while a more conservative caller of change was Count Cavour. Together these two men helped Italy unite and become one independent country.
Unification of Germany
1864 - 1871
Germany had been made-up of many different states ruled by princes. Several wars between states and other nations and between other countries (Austria v.s. Prussia to the last, Franco-Prussian) resulted in nationalism for a unified Germany and in 1871 The German princes gathered in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia the new Emperor of Germany.
A Japanese set movement that started after Tokugawa shogunates signed a unfavorable peace treaty with the United States and the Japanese people became upset and kicked the Tokugawa out of power and gave it back to the emperor. The emperor started reform by industrializing, creating a strong Japanese culture steeped in western ideals and values (especially German) and rejected Chinese influence. The slogan of this era was, "rich country, strong army," and they accomplished that by westernizing in the economic, social and military spheres. They went on to imperialize areas around them for natural resources they lacked. In Japan itself a new tax system was put in place, a constitution was written, and there was an abolishment of the old social order including getting rid of all samurai and daiymo. They mainly turned into land owners of businessmen.
1899 - 1902
The Boer War was a conflict between the British Empire and Dutch settlers in South Africa. The Boers wanted freedom from the imperalistic British Empire, and the Dutch backed their rebellion to gain control in the area for themselves. The British suffered major losses and lost public support for the war, they also showed weakness to the rest of Europe. But they sort of won the Boer War when they made the Boers a colony with promises of possibly self-government in the future.
A rebellion in China against foreigners and Chinese Christians. Boxers declared war on foreign soldiers and civilians, diplomats, and Chinese Christians. The Chinese government was split on encouraging this consevatism of Chinese culture and rejection of the west and condemming the acts of violence. The rebellion was started in part because of Englands selling of opium to China and Europes increasing involvement Chinese trade and country affairs and culture. After the Boxers were eventually defeated, the Chinese army officials who put down the rebellion took out the government officials who had supported the Boxers by either executing them or kicking them out of office.
1904 - 1905
"The first greatest war of the 20th century." A war between Russia and Japan over control of Korea and Manchuria. The Russians sought a "warm-water" port for better trade and that clashed with Japans wanting to control other lands for natural resources and take-over in Asia. When the Japanese expertly defeated the Russian military their position in the world was reassessed and they were put in higher standing as a world power.
Inventors and Leaders
1744 - 1803
Louveture was the Haitan who led the slave population and Maroons into revolution against slave owners on Haiti. He fought for the end to slavery against the Spainards, British and French. Napoleon's army captured him during the Haitan Revolution and he was deported, but the Revolution continued under Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
Reign of King Louis XVI
1774 - 1793
King Louis XVI never wanted to be a king or leader, he just liked hunting and eating. He was terribly with political affairs and economics which was terrible for the evermore troubling problems plauging France. Louis called the Estates General, but then pushed the third estate out and helped cause the French Revolution. The people forced him into not really ruling, sort of under house arrest in Paris. He and his family attempted to escape France but were caught and executed for treason.
1783 - 1830
A leader and fighter who wanted to make South America one country with states like the United States of America to the north. He travelled, aiding leaders in over-coming European overlords and setting up their own government while also combining together to create a South American country. He was ultimetly unsuccessful despite all this zeal and efforts. At the end of his life he was depressed and completely given up on a united South America seeing it as impossible to accomplish.
Reign of Napoleon
1799 - 1814
Napoleon was a brillient French military leader and tactician who took control from the Directory and eventually became emperor of France. He went on to build up French Nationalism and started invading other European countries drastically reorganizing Europe's boundries. When he was exiled, the second time, the remaining super powers of Europe shaped and set-up Europe for World War One. Napoleon's great accompishments while ruling were taking over many lands for France after its punishing revolution, building up nationalism and accumulating great works of art.
1863 - 1947
Inventor and businessman who created the model T car for mass production which gave every American the ability to purchase a car for a cheaper price. Ford utilized the assemly line to help quickly mass produce, while at the same time treating his workers a lot better than other businessmen and companies at the time. He was a leader in the Industrial Revolution and part of the new wealthy class in America.
James Watt perfects the Steam Engine
The perfected steam engine made transporting raw materials, finished goods, and people much easier across land and sea, connecting long distances and opening seemingly bare, unhelpful lands, like Siberia, to the rest of the world (via Tran-Siberian Reailroad.) It was faster and more efficient than imperfect steam engines and helped fuel the tempo of the industrial revoultion.
Spinning Mule Developed
Invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton, the spinning mule made weaving in factories much faster for mass production of woven goods. It increased textile production and sales and added to the new inventions of the industrial revolution. Women now worked in factories with the spinning mule instead of being part of the out-putting system, this changed the dynamic of family life.
Cotton Gin Developed
The Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney, gave the Southern United States a huge boost in cotton production and made them a big supplier to the northern states and Great Britain. It inadvertantly made the issue of slavery more contested as more slaves were needed to fuel the cotton industry. This was a product of the industrial revolution and helped fuel factories in the northern United States producing textiles.
Congress of Vienna
1814 - 1815
The Congress of Vienna was held in Vienna after Napoleon was captured and exiled the first time. The Congress was made up of representatives from all the major powers in Europe, Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. They reinstated the monarchy in France and brought back most of the old ways while redistributing and reorganizing Europe after Napoleon's adventure. They did not do a very good job though as they all wanted a say in countries affairs, while Napoleon had actually stoked nationalism in minority groups and smaller powerless countries. Napoleon escaped while the Congress of Vienna was being held, but then was recaptured and sent away again.
Communist Manifesto published
The Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels was a book on how communism would work, the oppressing class structure system and how terrible capitalism was for the world. It is considered a hugely influencial book outlining Marx and Engels idea of communism and the eventual revolution.
Bessemer process developed
The Bessemer process helped the Industrial Revolution in that it was a cheap way to manufacture steel by using "pig" iron. Henry Bessemer developed the process which increased steel manufacturing leading to business monopolies and hundreds of thousands of buildings being made with a steel infrastructure along with inproved trains and car parts.
Origin of the Species Published
Written by Charles Darwin, this book was part of the scientific revolution and a continuation of the humanization and enlightenment idea. This book explained the process of evolution, which made humans more normal and at the same time seperate from other animals. This signifies a start to balancing evolution with the belief in God.
1859 - 1869
A canal linking the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea through Egypt. This canal was built to transport goods easily from the East Asias into Eastern Europe and eventually to Western Europe. The canal idea was put into action by Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French guy.
Emancipation of Russian Serfs
The emancipation of Russian serfs was decreed by Aexander II as he like his father Nicholas I believed American slavery was inhumane and by believing that, they could not allows Russians to also own serfs (slaves.") But conditions for freed serfs were terrible still. They may have been free, but suddenly they needed to pay taxs and usually ended up working for the nobles they had been freed from in the same conditions, or working in industrial revolution factories.
Berlin West Africa Conference
1884 - 1885
This event was called for by Portugal and set up by Otto von Bismark to try and regulate European colonization of Africa. But the conference really increased European countries attempts to grab, control and/or colonize parts of Africa. It is significant that Bismark organized the conference signifying Germany's rise as a major European power.
Indian National Congress Founded
A group founded to try and keep or push out the British dealing wit Indian politics and economics. They fought for India's independence from Britian and turnd into a politicl party after succeeding in gaining freedom. This group was pivitol in the fight to be independent, it gave Indians one central area or people to gather around and become organized.
1904 - 1905
A canal which connects the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean to make it easier to transport goods by sea from Asia to the American east coast, Africa of Western Europe instead of travelling around Cape Horn. The Columbians first owned the canal and then by the French and then the Americans before eventually being owned by Panama.
All-India Muslim League founded
An Indian group of made-up of Muslims who wanted to create a seperate Muslim-majority country. They were the minority in Hindu India and were not heard or suppressed by Hindu beliefs and society. They also went up against the British, united with other non-musim indians, to gain independence. And in 1947 they succeeded in creating the serperate Muslim country of Pakistan from north-western Indian territory.
Henry Ford Develop Assembly Line
Henry Ford developed the assembly line which had workers doing one task over and over and over again in the end coming up with a final product all the workers had contributed towards. This system was efficient and quick, the mass production of products was possible. Henry Ford used the assembly line with cars, but soon it became the way for most manufacturing factories to work their workers.