Knowing and Learning Timeline


Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning theory


Pavlov presented his theory of classical conditioning that lead to popular behaviorism in the early part of the 20th century. This influenced both Watson and B. F. Skinner.

Behaviorism gains popularity


Behaviorism begins to spread thanks to Pavlov. Behaviorists believe that learning occurs when new behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired as the result of an individual’s response to stimuli.

John Watson publishes "Psychology as Behaviorist Views"


John Watson publishes "Psychology as Behaviorist Views", which launches the influential behaviorism movement.

Jean Piaget studies his children


Piaget conducts early psychological studies on his own children, forming his theories of experience-based learning and begins to create his stages of intellectual development.

John Watson's little albert experiment


John Watson's little albert experiment involved classical conditioning.

Lev Vygotsky's scaffolding theory


All kids can reach their highest potentials by scaffolding. Tasks are completed by guidance to reach a new zone of development. Each child has zone of proximal development.

Jean Piaget presents his theory of genetic epistomology


Jean Piaget's learning theory of genetic epistomology defines learning as the construct of meaning.

B. F. Skinner's first paper is published


Skinner's first paper on conditioning is published.

Jean Piaget publishes "The Moral Judgement of the Child"


Piaget introduces the beginning of cognitive theory.

Jean Piaget created his cognitive development theory


Piaget determined that his children went through four distinct stages of intelligence: the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage.

B. F. Skinner published "Behavior of Organisms"


Skinner's book, "Behavior of Organisms", revives behaviorist classroom models.

B. F. Skinner publishes behaviorism theories


B. F. Skinner's research was printed in over 200 articles and books. Skinner was greatly influenced by Watson.

Benjamin Bloom publishes "The Taxonomy of Educational Cojectives"


Benjamin Bloom publishes "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" and developed a method for reorganizing instruction to allow for more individualized learning.

Benjamin Bloom founds MESA


Benjamin Bloom founds MESA (Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis Program) at the University of Chicago.

Lev Vygotsky publishes "Thought and Language"


Vygotsky's book, "Thought and Language", explores social development theories of learning.

Jerome Bruner publishes "Toward a Theory of Instruction"


Jerome Bruner's book, "Toward a Theory of Instruction", where he introduces his constructivist learning theory.

Jerome Bruner's discovery learning theory


Through constructivism, knowledge is actively created or invented by the child, not passively received from the environment.

Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory


Gardner identified eight different kinds of intelligence: visual-spatial, linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Gardner was influenced by Piaget.

Howard Gardner publishes "Art, Mind, and Brain"


Howard Gardner's book, "Art, Mind, and Brain", is published and introduces his multiple intelligences learning theory.

Howard Gardner publishes "Frames of Mind"


Howard Gardner publishes "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences".

Constructivism spreads


Constructivism begins to spread. Learning is seen as the process where individuals construct new ideas or concepts based on prior knowledge or experience.