Knowing and Learning by Anna Ioannidis




Learning is due to an observable change in behavior.



Socializing and interacting with peers stimulates learning.

John Dewey


Centered on the idea that learning is active and school is unnecessarily long and restrictive.

Said that thinking takes place in five steps and is based mainly on inquiry.

Erik Erikson


Came up with aneight-stage theory of human development, also known as his “psychosocial crisis theory” of human development.

Covers development throughout a person's life from infancy to death, not just childhood.

Benjamin Bloom


Most famous for “Bloom’s Taxonomy,” which consists of creating, evaluating, analyzing, applying, understanding, and remembering.

There are three main types of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

Howard Gardner


Came up with the theory of multiple intelligences, specifically that there are eight different types of intelligence.

The types of intelligence not only cover knowledge, they also cover personal characteristics and interactions with others and with the environment.

Behaviorists and Constructivists

John B. Watson


Behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed by classical or operant conditioning and through interactions with the environment.

Lev Vagotsky


Proposed that every child has a “Zone of Proximal Development” as a result of social interaction. It is what the learner can do with guidance and it lies between what the learner cannot do and what the learner can do unaided.

Jean Piaget


Knowledge is not hidden somewhere inside for us to find, but instead it is reached through personal experiences.

Students stimulate their own learning without the help of their instructor, whether they do so through social interactions or with technology.

Used charts to compare physical and cognitive growth in children

Learning happens in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations.

Came up with the theory of equilibration

B.F. Skinner


A person’s history of environmental interactions controls his or her behavior and learning happens in response to stimuli as a result of operant conditioning.