U.S. History


Martin Luther-energize puritan


Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg cathedral.

Institutes of the Christian Religion-John Calvin

  1. Basic doctrines were stated in the 1536 document entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion.
  2. Stated that all humans were weak and wicked.
  3. Only the predestined could go to heaven, no matter what.
  4. Calvinists were expected to seek “conversions,” signs that they were one of the predestined, and afterwards, lead “sanctified lives.”

Only 44 of the 102 survived.

1620 - 1621

In the winter of 1620-21, only 44 of the 102 survived.

Pilgrims to Plymouth-Mayflower

  1. After negotiating with the Virginia Company, the Separatists left Holland and sailed for 65 days at sea on the Mayflower until they arrived off the rocky coast of New England in 1620, a trip in which only one person died and one person was born.
  2. Less than half of the pilgrims on the Mayflower were actually Separatists.
  3. Contrary to myth, the Pilgrims undertook a few surveys before deciding to settle at Plymouth, an area far from Virginia.
  4. The Pilgrims became squatters, people without legal right to land and without specific authority to establish government.

1st Thanksgiving-Pilgrims


Great Migration


Massachusetts Bay Colony
70,000 refugees
Not all puritans
Only 20,000 to MA
Many to West Indies--Sugar-rich island of Barbados

Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island Providence


Built a Baptist church---1st in US
Established complete freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics
Though disagreed with Quaker's view, he sheltered them.