Histoy of Ancient World

Main

Stone Age

10,500 BC - 3000 BC

Lifespan of the Stone Age followed by the Bronze Age.

Gobekli Tepe

10,000 BC - 8,500 BC

Monolithic; humans have no organization; writing or live in a single place; Gobekli Tepe doesn't survive and completely buried in dirt; Occupied for 2000 years.

Pottery

6500 BC

Clay vessel dried in fire; Not for nomadic groups; Different styles with time

Halaf Culture

6100 BC - 4500 BC

Samarra Culture

6000 BC - 4800 BC

Hassuna Culture

6000 BC - 5250 BC

Development of Wheel

6000 BC

Wheel is created. This allows for the creation of pottery wheel also and pottery become easier to produce and pottery is much smoother and refined.

Ubaid Culture

5400 BC - 4000 BC
  • Akkad: Better Climate overall; resources close
  • Sumer: Opposite Akkad; horrible weather; disease; irregular flooding
  • Around 4000 B.C. there were around 5000 people
  • Canals
  • City Problems
  • Infant Mortality Rate
  • 3000 BC - Uruk there are 50,000 people; more people more power; bigger army and political power

Before the Pharaohs

5000 BC - 3000 BC

The Uruk Period

4000 BC - 2900 BC

City of Uruk.

Writing

3500 BC

Mesopotamia first writing system; become invaluable source; developed in response to trade; Ideograph- ideas through pictures; develops over next 3000 years; Sumerian grammar has many monosyllabic and homophones; one symbol can be used for many different purposes; Cuneiform- wedge shaped; Scribes- go to schools to write

Egypt Unification

3000 BC

Narmer begins the unification of Egypt around 3000 BC; only city states were present; was done through military event.

Early Dynastic Period

3000 BC - 2334 BC
  • Bronze is a mix of tin and copper
  • Tools for agriculture and weapons, takes a lot of skill
  • Zagros mts. have copper
  • tin imports from spain and asia
  • Cities
  • War/Warfare
  • Infantry
  • Monarchy: Kish
  • Ur (city)

Bronze Age

3000 BC

Lifespan of the Bronze Age followed by the Iron age.

Sumer

3000 BC - 2300 BC
  • Opposite of Akkad
  • Horrible Weather
  • Disease
  • Irregular flooding

Old Kingdom of Egypt

2700 BC - 2200 BC

Pharaoh Djoser (3rd dynasty) begins projects to create his tombs; Imhotep builds Djoser a mastaba and architectural genius; Step pyramid built for Djoser but not good enough; Pharaoh Snefru (4th dynasty) becomes greatest pyramid; Snefru creates first smooth sided pyramid at 55 degrees and creates the bent pyramid; Then Red Pyramid created; Pharaoh Khufu creates Great Pyramid of Giza; built by 400,000 people; free labor on the pyramids; Khufu's heirs built other 2 and smaller ones for the queens; Draining on the economy; decrease in size shows fall of economy and kings lose power and no longer centralized

Akkadian Empire

2334 BC - 2200 BC

Lifespan of Akkadian Empire. Lead by Sargon; Overthrew King of Kish and uses similar story to Moses in order to legitimize his rule
1. Destroys all city walls
2. Places his own people in control of cities
Naram-Sin was worshipped as a God instead of a King and kingdom falls after his son only rules for a decade.
- First King of Akkadian Empire (Sargon)
- Raises large army attacks neighboring country and they yield due to huge numbers and cycle repeats
- Conquers all of Mesopotamia into Syria
- Akkadian Language used for international politics
- City state taken up after empires fall

Ascension of Sargon the Great

2334 BC

First Intermediate Kingdom of Egypt

2200 BC - 2050 BC

Chaos in Egypt; Not used to chaos and incredibly affected; Depression overcomes Egypt.

Third Dynasty of Ur

2112 BC - 2004 BC
  • Ur III
  • King of Ur - Shulgi -Followed Naram-Sin and called themselves Gods
  • Empire divided into provinces -Two leaders per province: one political, one military -Constant switching and moving around so none rebel -Law Code established

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

2050 BC - 1730 BC

Still weak were never able to get the same power as Old Kingdom; Pharaohs are seen as lonely, depressed, with no help; internal stability and external attack take over.

The Hebrews

2000 BC - 900 BC

Old Babylonia

1792 BC - 1595 BC
  • Hammurabi
  • Divides into provinces
  • Creates new Law code, Code of Hammurabi
  • 1st Law Code that survives
  • Suffers internal saction and external collapse
  • Slow collapse over time
  • Hittites burn babylon to the ground when it was weak
  • Indo-Europeans - speak language related to each other; bring new technologies, chariots, horses; many follow examples of Akkadians, Ur, and Babylon

Second Intermediate Kingdom of Egypt

1720 BC - 1540 BC

Hyksos destroys central government; Nubian powers occupies south; Egypt hatred towards Hyksos grows; Hyksos brings new technology; Chariots and the compound bow; weak during this with intense warfare

Babylon Destroyed

1595 BC

New Kingdom of Egypt

1570 BC - 1070 BC

Battle of Qadesh

1274 BC
  • Against the Hittites
  • Qadesh was very important and Ramses II wanted it back

Peace Treaty between Egypt and Hittites

1258 BC

Collapse of the Bronze Age

1200 BC

Fall of the Bronze Age followed by the Iron Age.

Assyrian Empire

850 BC - 605 BC

Successors of the Assyrians

605 BC - 550 BC

Beginning of Babylonian Captivity

587 BC

Persian Empire

550 BC - 331 BC