Lifespan of the Stone Age followed by the Bronze Age.
Monolithic; humans have no organization; writing or live in a single place; Gobekli Tepe doesn't survive and completely buried in dirt; Occupied for 2000 years.
Clay vessel dried in fire; Not for nomadic groups; Different styles with time
Wheel is created. This allows for the creation of pottery wheel also and pottery become easier to produce and pottery is much smoother and refined.
City of Uruk.
Mesopotamia first writing system; become invaluable source; developed in response to trade; Ideograph- ideas through pictures; develops over next 3000 years; Sumerian grammar has many monosyllabic and homophones; one symbol can be used for many different purposes; Cuneiform- wedge shaped; Scribes- go to schools to write
Narmer begins the unification of Egypt around 3000 BC; only city states were present; was done through military event.
Lifespan of the Bronze Age followed by the Iron age.
Pharaoh Djoser (3rd dynasty) begins projects to create his tombs; Imhotep builds Djoser a mastaba and architectural genius; Step pyramid built for Djoser but not good enough; Pharaoh Snefru (4th dynasty) becomes greatest pyramid; Snefru creates first smooth sided pyramid at 55 degrees and creates the bent pyramid; Then Red Pyramid created; Pharaoh Khufu creates Great Pyramid of Giza; built by 400,000 people; free labor on the pyramids; Khufu's heirs built other 2 and smaller ones for the queens; Draining on the economy; decrease in size shows fall of economy and kings lose power and no longer centralized
Lifespan of Akkadian Empire. Lead by Sargon; Overthrew King of Kish and uses similar story to Moses in order to legitimize his rule
1. Destroys all city walls
2. Places his own people in control of cities
Naram-Sin was worshipped as a God instead of a King and kingdom falls after his son only rules for a decade.
- First King of Akkadian Empire (Sargon)
- Raises large army attacks neighboring country and they yield due to huge numbers and cycle repeats
- Conquers all of Mesopotamia into Syria
- Akkadian Language used for international politics
- City state taken up after empires fall
Chaos in Egypt; Not used to chaos and incredibly affected; Depression overcomes Egypt.
Still weak were never able to get the same power as Old Kingdom; Pharaohs are seen as lonely, depressed, with no help; internal stability and external attack take over.
Hyksos destroys central government; Nubian powers occupies south; Egypt hatred towards Hyksos grows; Hyksos brings new technology; Chariots and the compound bow; weak during this with intense warfare
Fall of the Bronze Age followed by the Iron Age.