During early Mesopotamian civilization, early Egyptian civilization begins to form in the fertile valley of the Nile.
3000 bc - 2350 bc
Created a system of Cuneiform - a system of symbol writing in which pictures for objects and marks for numbers were engraved on clay tablets
*huts evolved into 12 independent city-states
Old Kingdom of Egypt
2686 bc - 2181 bc
Essential forms of Egyptian civilization take shape
*Royal power reaches its height
Pharaoh - Egyptians believed them to be both man and god, an absolute ruler who maintained irrigation system, justice, and expressed the will of heaven.
*Enormous expenditure of resources on pyramids leads to Old Kingdoms decline.
First Intermediate Period of Egypt
2181 bc - 2040 bc
Rival families compete for throne (Game of Thrones)
*Civil war and failure to maintain irrigation system send Egypt into downturn
2100 B.C. - 1750 B.C.
Covers years 2100 -1750 B.C.E.
Mesopotamia - region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Irrigation of Tigris and Euphrates plays important role in agricultural development
Dark side of early civilization - Disease, slavery
Sumerians - located in southern Mesopotamia
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
2040 bc - 1730 bc
Strong kings reassert Pharaonic rule
*cultural and economic life revive
*Egyptian control extends to include Nubia
*Profitable trade with Crete, Syria, and Palestine
Second Intermediate Kingdom of Egypt
1730 bc - 1550 bc
Nobles regain power
*Nubians break away
Hyksos invade Egypt with bronze tools and horses - acclimated into Egyptian culture
New Kingdom of Egypt
1550 bc - 1080 bc
Egyptians look to the past and begin to rebuild by the example of their ancestors
1500 bc - 1200 bc
Among first to use iron weapons
At its peak in 1300 B.C.E., challenged Egypt for Syria & Palestine
*Capital eventually sacked and burned to the ground
-Replaced by smaller kingdoms
1200 bc - 539 bc
One of the first to use an Alphabet
Elite tradesmen - sail Mediterranean
*Known for their purple dye
-Called the "purple people" by Greeks
*Established Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage - (813 B.C.E.)
*Famous for their papyrus
King Solomon used Phoenician artisans to build his temple
The Kingdom of Kush
1070 bc - 780 bc
Nubians assimilate with Egyptians and make mini-pyramids
Age of Classical Prophecy
750 bc - 430 bc
745 bc - 612 bc
Capital is Nineveh
Jonah is sent to Nineveh, doesn't want to , eaten by whale
Nineveh destroyed by Babylonians in 612 B.C.E
Very warlike / violent - specialize in siege warfare
626 bc - 539 bc
Capital: Babylon 200 square miles
Ziggurat 665ft tall with a solid gold altar on top
Famous for Hanging Gardens
Pleasure gardens 75ft up in the air
Hollow pillars with water screws worked by slaves
One of the first cities to have suburbs
Well versed in astronomy
distinguished between planets and stars
Created Geometry - minutes & seconds
586 bc - 538 bc
Story of Daniel begins
Hebrew scripture begins to be created in an effort to preserve culture and past
559 bc - 330 bc
Zoroastrianism ( Dualism) - belief of a Good entity and Evil entity at work in life. Good Vs. Evil. Ahuramazda Vs. Ahriman respectively
Royal road 1,600 miles from Susa - Sardis
-Fresh ponies every 16 miles
-Royal postal service - "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds"
Founding of Major Cities
Located in Palestine
*One of the first cities to build a wall around the city
*2,000 people approximately, 8 acres
Located in Turkey - 25 acres, apprx. 10,000 people
*Didn't have streets. Travelled over rooftops.
More sophisticated than early Jericho
Location: Sumer, Southern Mesopotamia
Population: apprx. 50,000 around 2900 B.C.E.
*Large wall 5 miles long
*Lunar Calendar based off phases on the moon.
*Polytheistic( belief in multiple gods)
I. Key gods:
*Enlil ~ god of storms
*Anu ~ god of the sky
Capital of Assyria
Major Phoenician coastal city
Phoenician city that would come to be Rome's greatest enemy.
Includes: Important figures - kings, pharaohs, etc.
Sargon the Great of Akkad
Conquered most of Mesopotamia and built the world's first empire.
*Conquered Sumerians most notably
*Daughter, Enheduanna - world's first known poet
1800 bc - 1600 bc
Possibly came from Ur, led by Yahweh to Palestine
Origin of monotheism perhaps
Has a son Isacc - father of Jacob and Esau
Jacob father of Joseph and 11 other sons
1792 B.C.E. - 1750 B.C.E.
*Brings Akkad and Sumer under his control
Exile of Hykos
Egyptians drive out Hykos and begin empire building.
One of the earliest surviving works of literature
*Deals with profound theme of human protest against death
*Gilgamesh seeks immortality
*Depicts Mesopotamian mood of pessimism and despair associated with death
The Jewish Faith
Scripture - Torah - defining elements of what it meant to be Jewish
Monotheism - refined slowly - Yahweh - only one God.
-Very unique for its time
Sovereign and Transcendent God - God of everything
Covenant - Jewish people had a special relationship with God
Law intertwined with religion
Prophetic Tradition - individuals who spoke to people in power,
in particularly of corruption and social conscience
New concept of History: linear - began at creation