Ms. Merchant - Unit 7 - USH Timeline

Key Terms

Major Terms on the Assignment Sheet

Homestead Act

1862

was a piece of legislation. This act was made as an incentive tactic for prospective farmers. The act gave the farmer a 160 acre plot of land for free on two conditions; they were required to live there for 5 years and improve the land. This was the catalyst for the largest migration in American history, harboring the greatest success in central and upper midwest. Most migrants did not use the homestead claims to fulfill their destiny in new territory.

Morrill Act

1862

was an act. This act was the most practical solution to integrate education with the demands of agricultural society in the 1860's. This act gave colleges land grants to help build and kick-start their campuses, and in exchange, the colleges promised to create agriculture programs.

Sand Creek Massacre

November 29, 1864

was a slaughter. Once Governor John Evans revoked all treaties with the eastern-Colorado tribes, he encouraged white civilians to “kill and scalp all [Indians], big and little”. 700 white civilians responded to these remarks, killing 200 Cheyenne’s (mostly the elderly and children). The targets were mostly the elderly and children. Months afterwards, many tribes retaliated with fatal attacks. This shift in tribe's attitudes show that white's dominating the Indian's culture made an originally peaceful party violent.

Great Sioux War

1865 - 1867

was a conflict between the Sioux and the U.S Army. The Sioux were led by Oglala warrior Red Cloud, and the battle ended in a stalement.

The Grange

1867

was a co-op farm made up of white farmers from the midwest. They vouched for the passing of the Granger Laws, maximum shipping rates and fair rights for farming supplies, government ovwned banks and telegraph lines, and regulated rates charged by railroads.

Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867

1867

was a political agreement. This treaty assigned many Indian tribes reservations that were on land already claimed by other Indian tribes. This caused immediate discontent with the tribes that were the original land owners. The new tribes and the original tribes were often conflicting tribes, leading to fatal clashes.

Treaty of Fort Laramie

1868

was a post-war payment. While the Sioux war ended in a stalemate, this treaty recognized the Sioux as the war victor. This "garunteed" them the possession of the Black Hills (their sacred land in South Dakota) and hunting rights. Once gold was discovered in this garunteed land, these rights and agreements were overlooked by white officials and individuals and the Sioux were removed.

Knights of Labor

1869 - 1890

was a labor union. Founded by Philadelphian garment cutters, the Knights of Labor sought to promote economic cooperation by bringing together the employed regardless of skill level, race (exculding the Chinese) or gender.

The Knights of Labor thought that if corporate America were to reform certain aspects of business, free themselves from ignorance and alcohol, and let go of the concept of a monopoly, America would finally become a truly democratic society. The Knights hoped to see restrictions in child labor, more land for homesteading, the removal of contract labor and a graduated income tax. They wanted to abolish the wage system, but failed. The Knights of Labor were at their highest success when they supported the eight-hour week day.

Horizontal Combination

1870

was a business strategy. Originally called a trust, the concept of horizontal combination was that one major company in a particular field would buy out all of the smaller companies of the same field, creating a monopoly. Rockefeller was the most prominent example of a businessman practice horizontal combination, owning 90% of oil in the United States.

Good Neighbor Policy

1870

was a bilateral treaty in the 1870's. Initiated by the American Secretary of State, this treaty let the United States take control of economies in the Caribbean and Central America. The treaty allowed America to cheaply import foreign raw materials and dominate these same countries local markets with American manufactured goods. This unequal trade led to the American take-over of foreign industries that were essential to a countries success. Since these countries must be in a state of peace for this policy to thrive, America invested in the expansion of the U.S Navy as another tactic to keep Latin American countries under American control.

2nd Industrial Revolution

1871 - 1914

was a wildly fast paced revolution, bring USA from 4th to 1st in the world competition for productivity. Advances in transportation and technology made revolution possible. The transcontinental railroad and new technologies allowing for increased labor productivity and volume of goods were the catalysts for economic growth. Department stores, chain stores and independent neighborhood stores (mail-order houses?) became major business outlets. The world of advertising increased immensely in 1869, starting the advertising revolution.

The Gilded Age

1880 - 1890

a time period that was the appearance of wealth and success, but really hid all the grime and grit underneath.

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

was a legislation discriminating against the Chinese. Since Chinese immigrants were so widely available as laborers, they first worked on the railroads. Once the railroads were built and these Chinese railroad workers entered the job market and were successful in finding jobs, animosity grew against the Chinese. The act stopped immigrations from China for 10 years.

Josiah Strong

1885

was a congressional minister. Strong thought white Americans were the best agents for spreading faith overseas in Africa and Asia. Strong was known for advocating an "imperialism of righteousness", meaning the need for the spread of Christianity in hopes to enlighten less civilized countries.

American Federation of Labor

1886

was a union. The AML focused on gathering skilled workers (but not minorities or immigrants) together to focus on specific workplace issues in their particular like of work. This group was a broader social program, and it accepted the wage system. The AFL focused on a bargain system between firms; if they improved workers quality of job life with less hours, higher wages and better conditions, then the firms could receive more time an scheduling with higher wage-earners. If the bargain proved problematic or corrupt, the AFL was not afraid to strike because they had good relationships with companies.

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

was a piece of legislation. The act divided communal tribal land and administered 160 acre plots to "well-deserved" individuals, not tribes, who represented their tribe and agreed to give the left-over land to government to sell. These requirements promoted Native American's disowning their own culture, which was the intention of this legislation. They hoped these procautions would destroy Native American tribes while the government attained land. These chosen individuals could petition for citizenship. This was an attempt to force Native Americans into white customs.

National Farmers' Alliance

1889

was a post-reconstruction organization. Composed of the Nothern Farmers Alliance and the Southern Farmers Alliance (exculding the COlored Farmers Alliance), they lobbyed for free silver, land for citizens only, lower tariffs, graduated income tax and state-owned Railroads.

Ghost Dance

1889 - 1890

was a religious vision that turned into a mass murder. A Northern Paiute Wovoka had a vision describing an afterlife for Indians with their original land restored and without whites. A dance came out of this vision, and was quickly learned by many tribes. As a harmless symbol of resistance, the "Ghost Dancer" would dance to exhaustion. These dances scared officials, and when asked to stop, they continued. Finally, a military force came to the Sioux Ghost dancer (plus 300 more tribe members) to scare them into abandoning their dance of "retribution". Quickly going from a scare to an assault, more than 200 Sioux were killed and soldiers suffered many casualties.

Populism

1890

mass movement created to represent the common man's interest instead of the elite's interests. Made for the people by the people, this organzation included members from the National Farmer's Alliance, Knights of Labor and the Colored Farmer's Alliance.

Queen Lili’uokalani

1891

was the queen of Hawai'i. Once America dominated the Hawaiian sugar trade and began to push for official Hawaiian annexation, Queen Lili'uokalani recognized the need to disconnect Hawai'i from America's political influence. Once the U.S government realized her intentions, they used previous legislation to legal force U.S troops into Hawaii to protect "their" property. Queen Lili’uokalani, was reinstated later as queen by President Cleveland, but was later put onto 5 years of house arrest on accusations of treason.

The People's Party

1892

a national third party. The People's Party was a congregation of many individuals from multiple organizations that felt the need to create a new platform. The platform encompassed the concept of government-supplied warehouses where famers could store their food during tough times as a business strategy. This new platform also included government ownership of banks, railroads and telegraph lines, immigration restrictions, graduated income tax and the prohibition of large landholding companies.

Free Silver

1894

a philosophy. Many people thought that the government should back money with silver and gold to help farmers access to cash.

Cuba Libre

1896

was a movement. As a result of the Spanish governer's reconcentrado policy that forced innocent civilians into grave concentration camps to prevent them aiding the rebels, America press showcased the horrors through yellow journalism to win the support of the American People. Cuba Libre, meaning Free Cuba in Spanish, was a major milestone in American involvement in foreign affairs.

Vertical Integration

1899

was a new approach to firm responsibilities. Vertical integration made a firm responsible for the adequate completion the entire process of their product creation, from the raw materials to selling the finished product. A firm owned each step of the process, as opposed to each step being seperate but connected through contracts.

Background Information

Idea of Reservations Develops

1840

Texas Becomes A State

1845

Gold Discovered in California

1848

Sioux Give Up Large Amounts of Land

1851

as a sort of peace offer, to show their positive and best intentions.

Recession

1866 - 1867

Depression

1873 - 1879

Gold discoverd in Black Hills

June 1874 - August 1874

Custer's Last Stand

June 25, 1876

When Cheyenne and Sioux warriors attacked Custer and his troops as a result of continuous abuse of Indian specific territory. This event turned public sentiment against the Indians.

Edison Electric Light Company launched

1882

Served NYC financial district and revolutionized urban life and industry.

Cowboy's strike

1883

for higher wages because their already low wages began to fall with the price of beef in the 1880's.

Recession

1883 - 1885

90% cattle in Northern Plains killed

1885 - 1887

The cattle ruined the limited grass supply. With that in account, and then adding the summer droughts and winter blizzards, the cattle could not survive.

Ranchers went backrupt, violence was a result.

Recession

1890 - 1891

Depression

1893 - 1897