central organized unit was created, was small in size and population, had 2 key features: agora, open air markets and acropolis, hilltops in Greece
Darius the great attacks Greece. Persians sent 25,000 men across the Aegian Sea. 6,000 Persians died, only 200 men died from Athens.
created 3 political reforms:
Power of Assembly
Council of 500- which posed laws and guided the assembly
Athenians were celebrating their early victory when Pheidippides ran 26.2 miles from marathon to warn them that Persia was preparing to fight. He died from running the "marathon" he was then celebrated as a war hero.
Xerxes, Darius's son, wanted revenge because the Athenians were the unofficial cause of his father's death. Xerxes built a HUGE army and moved towards Greece. Many Greek City-States were becoming allies with Persia because they were afraid, but most Greeks sided with Athens.
7,000 Greeks including 300 Spartans held Persia for 3 days and "sacrificed" themselves so the Athenians could go warn their people about Persia returning.
Athens had an advantage of living by the water and being trained to fight on water, although Persia being a mainly land based area, they had little to no traning for naval battle. Athens waited for Persia to go to the island of Salima, Persia, unable to navigate narrow water passages, was trapped an Athens was victorious.
the Delian League was run by Athens, it was a group of city-states in an alience promissing to defend each other during war, Athens taxes them
focused on individual action, was a soldier in the Peloponnesian war, challenged authroity, Socratic Method ( teacher asks questions, student answers) forsed to drink poison for "corupting the youth"
First Olympics had extensive training, athletes were unpaid, winners received prizes, took place in Olympia, the mythological home of the Olympics
honorable statesmen, had 3 goals to Strengthen Democracy, Empire Building, and Glorification of Athens, fought in the Persian War
Parthenon was built under the guidance of Athena
Athens against Sparta in war, Athens has a plague which helps Sparta, Temporary truce in 421 BC, Athens invades Sicily and Syracue in 415 BC, Sparta invades Athensin 413 BC, Athens surrenders in 404 BC
student of Socrates, he wrote all of Socrates teachings, focused on collective action, formed "the Academy", he wrote "The Republic"
brilliant student of Plato, logic applied to science, "The Lyceum" his school was built, he taught Alexander the Great there, Syllogisms if.. and.. then..