Period 4 Timeline

Religion: Crimson -- England: Dark Red -- Italy: Orange -- Mughal Empire: Yellow/Orange -- Spain: Yellow -- Portugal: Light Green -- West Africa: Dark Green -- China: Light Blue -- Holy Roman Empire: Dark Blue -- Safavid Empire: Grey Blue/Purple -- French: Purple -- Japan: Pink -- Ottoman: Black --


Songhai Empire

1000 - 1591

The Songhai Empire of West Africa was one of the largest and most powerful Islamic empires.

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1922

The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in the world, and existed for centuries. It was predominantly Islamic, and had a history of persecuting other religions.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Portuguese prince whose exploration is what started the Portuguese tradition of exceptional naval skill.

The Reign of Mehmed the Conquerer

1432 - 1481

Ruled the Ottoman Epire in a time when it grew tremendously. Under him they sacked Constantinople and toppled the Byzantine Empire.

Foundation of the Society of Jesus


Commonly know as the Jesuits, this was a religious group formed by Ignatious of Loyola. This group pledged to follow the four basic principles of Christianity, and still practices today.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade


Important because it was the beginning of the mass transatlantic slave trade that forced millions of Africans into the New World.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

First King of the Songhai Empire, 15th ruler of the Sunni Dynasty. He was a brilliant tactician and created a strong infantry and cavalry.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

The instigator of the Reformation, Luther posted the 95 theses on the door of a Catholic Church which listed his complaints. He started Lutheranism, and many other Protestant religions branched off.

Dias' Voyage into Indian Ocean


Sent to find trading route around Africa to India. Believed to be the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope.

Columbus' First Voyage

1492 - 1502

It was on this voyage that Columbus unwittingly stumbled upon the new world. He made two subsequent voyages, and his discovery changed the face of history as Europeans began a race to colonize and exploit the new resources.

Treaty of Torsedillas


Decided between Spain and Portgual who got what in the New World. Decided by the Pope drawing a line down the center of a map.

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722

Located in Iran during a Persian revival, the Safavids brought wealth and power back to a land that had once been rich.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1502 - 1566

Suleyman completely reformed the entire Ottoman legal system during his reign.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Started Calvinism, a very strict Protestant religion that believed in predestination. Calvinism was one of the instigators of the Thirty Years' War in Europe.

Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

The superior military technology of the Spanish, as well as an epidemic that struck at the same time, and their alliances with some local tribes, allowed Spain to conquer Mexico in a very short time.

Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1857

Founded in northern India, the Mughal empire became one of the powerful "gunpowder empires." Their most famous leader was Akbar the Great.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Established by Pope Paul III to discuss reformation within the Catholic Church as a way to slow the Protestant movement.

Galileo Galilei

1546 - 1642

Italian physicist, mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer. He worked on the telescope and was a big name in the scientific revolution.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Ruled the Mughal Empire in a peaceful time. He gained tight control of the government, and although he was nominally a Muslim, he showed a lot of tolerance for people of other faiths, even marrying a Hindi woman.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

Ruled for the longest of any of the Ming emperors, ascending to the throne at age 9. He oversaw the fall of the Ming dynasty.

Spanish Armada


Fleet of ships sent out to overthrow Elizabeth I, the English queen. Got owned by the British.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

A feudal type of Japanese government that had clans run by individual shoguns.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Initially sparked over the Calvinists feeling that they weren't getting representation. It was initially Protestants vs. Catholics, but it morphed into something much more political by the end.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

British physician and philosopher. Famous for his influence on the social contract and his input on the Declaration of Independence.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

Last imperial dynasty of China. Covered 14.7 million square kilometers at its peak.

Peace of Westphalia


Began a series of treaties to end the Thirty Years' War. These treaties resulted in a new system of government called Westphalian Sovereignty.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Huge war that involved most of the major world powers. It is also called the French and Indian war, and involved extensive fighting -- it is sometimes known as one of the first world wars.

First Colony Started in Australia


The Australian colonies were started by British who sent their criminals to the continent. Around 50,000 criminals were sent to and settled Australia.

End of the British Slave Trade


Outlawed the buying and selling of slaves in England and English colonies. Did not, however, outlaw slavery itself.