Wrote two greatest philosophical works of the late 18th century. , “The Critique of Pure Reason” (1781) and “The Critique of Practical Reason” (1788). Sought to accept rationalism of Enlightenment and to still preserve a belief in human freedom and immortality.
Neo- Gothic Revival
1740 - 1840
During this time, many medieval churches were restored and new churches were modeled after their medieval forerunners. British Houses of Parliament- built in 1836-1837- was the most famous public building in the Neo-Gothic Style
Johann Gotfried Herder
1744 - 1803
Went in search of Germany’s past to glorify German culture. Revived German folk culture by urging the collection and preservation of distinct German songs and sayings.
1749 - 1832
German romantic writer, may be the greatest German writer of modern times. Wrote “The Sorrows of Young Werther” (1774), which was admired for expression of feeling and living on the outside of polite society. His masterpiece, “Faust” was about a man who made a deal with the devil for more knowledge, and he ended up dedicating his life to the improvement of human beings.
1755 - 1824
Appointed by royalists and conservatives, as he agreed to rule France as a constitutional monarch.
Admiral Horatio Nelson
1758 - 1805
When Napoleon captured Egypt to attack British interests. Nelson destroyed the French fleet at Abukir on August 1, 1798.
1762 - 1848
Known as the father of German nationalism, He promoted an economic system where the entire country was shut off from the rest of the world. Believed in Volksgeist.
George Willhelm Frederich Hegel
1770 - 1831
German philosopher, and known as one of the most complicated and significant philosophes in the history of western civilization. Believed all cultures are valuable and all periods in history have been of almost equal value.
1770 - 1828
Troy Prime Minister of England. He sought to protect the interests of the wealthy and landed classes, and enacted the Corn LAws, that created popular unrest throughout England.
The Consulate in France
1799 - 1804
Bourgeoisie abolished hereditary privileges in France, and peasants gained land and destroyed the oppressive feudal system.
Concordat of 1801
Requires both the refractory clergy ( those who refused to take an oath of loyalty), and those who accepted the revolution to resign. Replacements were approved by the pope, but paid by the state. The Church gave up confiscated property, and the clergy had to swear to loyalty to the state.
Organic articles of 1802
Are Napoleon reconciled with the Church, and without consulting the pope, the Federal government established supremacy of the state over the Church.
Peace of Amiens
Marked the end of the Revolutionary war. The First Consul Napoleon gained enough popularity to begin legal, economic and educational reforms in France.
1804 - 1848
After crowing himself as consul for life, he seized a bomb attack on his life, and then used this to make himself emperor. He argued that establishing a dynasty would make the new regime more secure, and further attempts useless.
The Napoleonic code
Creating a conservative attitude toward women, it also forbid workers associations, fathers were granted control over children and wives, upheld the abolition of birth privileges, and made divorce more difficult for women, all the while creating a unified law throughout France.
Battle of Trafalgar
Ended in a British Victory, whose supreme navy defeated both the combined Spanish and French fleets. In it, Lord Nelson was killed.
Invasion of Russia
After Russia withdrew from the Continental System and prepared for war, Napoleon amassed an army of 600,00 men. THe Russians, using a “scorched-earth” policy, an weather, defeated the French, leaving only 100,00 to return.
Attempted to stop even Neutral nations from trading with the British in the Continental System.
Treaty of Tilsit
Negotiated by Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I on a raft in the Nieman RIver. In it, Prussia lost half of its territory and Napoleon appointed members of his family to govern his empire- his stepson ruling Italy, and his three brothers and brother-in-law were made Kings of other states.