After the rule of Napoleon was destroyed the Congress of Vienna placed the Bourbon line back on the throne of France hoping to return France back to its past stability.
Frederick William III promised a constitutional government in 1815 but broke the promise in 1817. He ended up creating a Council of State only responsible to him.
Student organizations form to talk about liberal political ideas in Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtemberg.
In Great Britain the Corn Laws were passed that maintained the increased price for domestically produced grain by levying import duties on foreign grain.
The Coercion Acts were passed which suspended habeus corpus and extended the laws against seditious gatherings so that the government could suppress the liberals without any laws getting in the way.
The first congress was held in Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany were the four powers removed their troops from France and debated on keeping the existing government boundaries.
In response to the Burschenschaften, Mettermich convinces the German Confederation to issue the Carlsbad Decree which dissolves all Burschenschaftens and provides university inspectors and press censorship.
local magistrate ordered royal troops and local militia to move into a mass meeting of liberals discussing reforms for the government. This event caused panic, 11 deaths, many injures, and the imprisionment of radical leaders.
Parliament passed the Six Acts which were six laws that tried to prevent radical leaders from getting mad adn gave authorities new power in Britain.
Ferdinand VII of Spain was placed on the spanish throne and promised to govern based on a constitution but never did so the people rebelled. The rebellion was successful.
The same thing that happened in Spain happened in Naples and Metternich took control of the situation because Austria wanted to dominate that peninsula.
The congress was led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia with the super powers and discussed what to do about Naples. They issued the Protocol of Troppau whichsaid that stable governments can intervene on countries having revolutions.
This congress allowed Austria to intervene in the revolution happening in Naples. The Austrians restored the King of Two Sicilies.
The Greeks were the minority in the Ottoman Empire because they were Christian not muslims so they wanted to revolt against the Muslims and with the help of the British they won and kicked the Muslims out of Greece.
After the death of Louis XVIII in 1824, Charles X his brother became King. Charles was an ultraroyalist and deeply believed in the divine right.
When Tsar Alexander I died he left his brother Nicholas I the throne eventhough the public wanted Constantine to take the throne. When the army went to go pledge allegiance to Nicholas I the Moscow regiment refused to unless Russia be given a representative government, the end of serfdom, and Constantine be Tsar. Instead royal troops attacked the regiment killing numerous and injuring many all on command of Nicholas I who gave Russia nothing of what they wanted.
The Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Catholic Irish to be elected into British Parliament and was one of the last straws that turned Britain into a liberal nation.
The Slavs (Serbians) also wanted to revolt against the Ottomans and the Russians felt a connection with the Slavs in their heritage so the Russians helped the Slavs revolt.
In response to the Four Ordinances the people in France revolted against the government by blockading the streets. The result of the revolution was Charles X being exiled and the Louis Philippe as the new king.
The Four Ordinances were laws set forth by Charles X that restricted many freedoms in France and resulted in a royal coup d'etat.
The Great Reform Bill was the last straw that turned Britain liberal and expanded the size of the English electorate, increased the number of voters in the system (middle-class), and new boroughs were created to give them more influence in the House of Commons.