Chapter 20 Outline


Defeat of the Prussian Reform

1815 - 1817

Frederick William III promised a constitutional government in 1815 but broke the promise in 1817. He ended up creating a Council of State only responsible to him.

Burschenschaften forming


Student organizations form to talk about liberal political ideas in Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtemberg.

Coercion Acts

March 1817

1st Congress of the Congress System


The first congress was held in Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany were the four powers removed their troops from France and debated on keeping the existing government boundaries.

Carlsbad Decree


In response to the Burschenschaften, Mettermich convinces the German Confederation to issue the Carlsbad Decree which dissolves all Burschenschaftens and provides university inspectors and press censorship.

Peterloo Massacre

August 16, 1819

local magistrate ordered royal troops and local militia to move into a mass meeting of liberals discussing reforms for the government. This event caused panic, 11 deaths, many injures, and the imprisionment of radical leaders.,d.aWc&psig=AFQjCNEM3Bao4Lr9wu9E5o_dt33wBPwuMQ&ust=1359692189310811

Six Acts

December 1819

Parliament passed the Six Acts which were six laws that tried to prevent radical leaders from getting mad adn gave authorities new power in Britain.

Spanish Revolution


Ferdinand VII of Spain was placed on the spanish throne and promised to govern based on a constitution but never did so the people rebelled. The rebellion was successful.

Naples Revolution

July 1820

The same thing that happened in Spain happened in Naples and Metternich took control of the situation because Austria wanted to dominate that peninsula.

Congress and Protocol of Troppau

October 1820

The congress was led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia with the super powers and discussed what to do about Naples. They issued the Protocol of Troppau whichsaid that stable governments can intervene on countries having revolutions.

Congress of Laibach

January 1821

This congress allowed Austria to intervene in the revolution happening in Naples. The Austrians restored the King of Two Sicilies.

Greek Revolution


The Greeks were the minority in the Ottoman Empire because they were Christian not muslims so they wanted to revolt against the Muslims and with the help of the British they won and kicked the Muslims out of Greece.

Decembrist Uprising


When Tsar Alexander I died he left his brother Nicholas I the throne eventhough the public wanted Constantine to take the throne. When the army went to go pledge allegiance to Nicholas I the Moscow regiment refused to unless Russia be given a representative government, the end of serfdom, and Constantine be Tsar. Instead royal troops attacked the regiment killing numerous and injuring many all on command of Nicholas I who gave Russia nothing of what they wanted.,d.aWc&psig=AFQjCNE8nuei9NwwVZveYekOFjOtz2iQMg&ust=1359692458349994

The Catholic Emancipation Act


The Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Catholic Irish to be elected into British Parliament and was one of the last straws that turned Britain into a liberal nation.

Serbia Revolution


July Revolution


In response to the Four Ordinances the people in France revolted against the government by blockading the streets. The result of the revolution was Charles X being exiled and the Louis Philippe as the new king.

Four Ordinances


The Four Ordinances were laws set forth by Charles X that restricted many freedoms in France and resulted in a royal coup d'etat.

The Great Reform Bill


The Great Reform Bill was the last straw that turned Britain liberal and expanded the size of the English electorate, increased the number of voters in the system (middle-class), and new boroughs were created to give them more influence in the House of Commons.