Ms. Merchant - Unit 6 - USH Timeline

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Lincoln's Death

April 14, 1865

Civil War

Confederate States of America vs. Union (South vs. North)
South/Confederates lost, North/Union won

  • Began as war of South fighting to keep slavery and North fighting to preserve Union
  • Transformed into South fighting to keep slavery and North fighting to abolish slavery

Secession

1860

Succession was a process that began in 1860. The Whig Party was collapsing and the Democratic Party was falling apart. The Republic election victory (with Abe Lincoln) in 1860) shamed and worried the South so much that they help a southern state convention in South Carolina. They voted unanimously for succession.

The Confederate States of America

1861

The Confederate States of America was "nation" formed in Alabama as a result of Southern discontent with the election of 1860. Formed once seven states in the lower south succeeded from the Union with four states joining at a later date. When making the confederation, the states/the states citizens gave up citizenship, states rights and infrastructure.

  • North has roads/army = More than south

Fort Sumter

1861

was a federal military installation. The warfare that happened here began the Civil War.

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1, 1863

was decree. Lincoln wanted a politically-backed solution to instate emancipation and forcibly push the succeeded back into the Union. Lincoln's first step was to state that if the South didn't return to the union, he would make their slaves "forever free". This did not include slaves from border states or Union-conquered, former Confederate areas. Lincoln used the concept of virtual representation to establish the proclamation because the South had no right to leave the Union from a legal standpoint. Lincoln used this rationale to support his right to legislate the south. The Emancipation Proclamation was successful, but it was only a stepping stone in the middle of the process of emancipation. It led to the 13th Amendment.

13th Amendment

1865

was a constitutional amendment. Once the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced with statements sent by Congress to each state, the next step in the process of emancipation was to enforce it in the constitution. The 13th amendment was ratified by the Union states in 1865, and it freed all slaves in the United States.

Appomattox

April 9, 1865

was a surrender location. General Lee of the Confederate States of America with 25000 troops surrendered to General Grant of the Union at Appomattox courthouse.

Reconstruction

1863-1877

Black Codes

1865

was a series of laws. Passed by southern states, these laws were an attempt to keep slaves out of the free labor workforce and as close to slave status as possible. This was a security blanket for southerns in case they lost the war. The black codes show how desperate the south was to hold on to slavery, because it defined their everyday lives. The Black Codes inspired the radicals to instate a joint committee of reconstruction.

Union League

1865

was a political party. As a republican party in northern cities, it started as a vocal, white middle class club and transformed into a freedmen's political party. The Union league was an important organizing device among freedmen. The Union League helped connect local blacks and black veterans.

Freedmen's Bureau

March 1865 - 1872

was a congress-made agency that provided services, advice and protection to formers slaves, in areas ranging from social, educational and economic issues. The Freedmen's Bureau was important because it was the first successful legislative precaution that tackled the issue of integrating newly freed blacks. Once the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was in place, the Freedmen's Bureau even helped blacks build schools, train and hire teachers, and establish courts.

14th Amendment

1866

was a constitutional amendment. This amendment gave blacks citizenship. States could not violate black male's civil rights without politically-backed reasoning. If states prohibited sufferage to any male over the age of 21, Congress had the right to reduce their representation.

First Reconstruction Act

1867

was a martial law for the South. This act divided the South into 5 military districts, left union soldiers in the South and set-up the process for re-admission in the union. Each confederate state must create a new constitution that garunteed blacks the right to vote and that ratified the 14th (and later 15th) amendment.

Ku Klux Klan

1868

was a anti-black terrorist group. This group was not only against blacks, but against white allies as well.

Redemption

1869 - 1877

was a process. "Redemption" was a the conservative Democrats rebutal against the Republican reconstruction regime. The Democrats would take control of southern states as a form of payback against the South. This process shows the angst and hate the Democrats had towards the Republicans as a result of reconstruction.

15th Amendment

1869

was a constitutional amendment. It stated that one's sufferage could not be refused on "account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude". To improve the amendment's chance at ratification, Southern states that needed to join the Union must ratify BOTH the 14th and 15th amendment. This plan worked flawlessly. The 15th amendment was important because it marked the end, and the peak, of reconstruction.

Ku Klux Klan Act

1871

Made the KKK's violent acts punishable by law. Courts later restricted Congress's right to enforce this act.

Depression of 1873

1873 - June 1878

Post-war boom and commercial overexpansion caused a depression. This caused farmers to question the old free-labor ideology.

Slaughterhouse Cases

1873

was a group of cases. These cases led to the Supreme Court decision that contradicted the 14th amendment. The Supreme Court agreed that the defining of citizenship rights should be decided on a state-basis, not a federal-basis. This verdict began the unraveling of years of hard work towards the civil rights movement for blacks. The Slaughterhouse cases showed that the road for the integration of free blacks into society was going to face many political obstacles.

Compromise of 1877

1877

was a congressional settling. Due to the issues developed in the Election fo 1876, the Compromise of 1877 legally-bound the agreement that Rutherford B. Hayes would be in the White House, and left Southern state governments to democratic control.