Period 4 timeline (1450-1750)


Songhai Empire

1000 - 1591

The Songhai Empire was one of the largest of the Islamic empires and also one of the most powerful. situated in Africa the Empire existed in some way for over 1000 years.

Ottoman dynasty

1299 - 1922

The Ottoman empire ruled for centuries and was one of the most powerful empires in the world. the Ottomans were ruled by one, the sultan. The ottoman empire was predominately an Islamic nation and through its history persecuted other religions.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Prince Henry the Navigator was a Portuguese prince. his work was what started the era of Portuguese exploration and he was the first to really explore under the flag of Portugal.

Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

1432 - 1481

Under the Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror the Ottoman empire grew immensely. In this time they conquered Constantinople and toppled the Byzantine Empire. He also led a charge and conquered territores as far as Bosnia and some parts of Asia.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave trade

1450 - 1750

The Portuguese slave trade was important because it led to the beginning of the Atlantic Slave trade and the eventual mass forced migration of slaves from Africa over to the new world. This slave trade also started the many plantations which became the norm for many of the areas where slaves were utilized.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire located in Africa. Sunni Ali was a brilliant tactician and under his rule he created a very strong cavalry and infantry force which was used to its full excess. Sunni Ali also created a fleet of ships which he sailed up the Niger river.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was arguably the biggest influence in the Protestant reformation. through his work and fighting of the church Martin Luther began a reformation that would shake the Churches power. Martin Luther was the first to really preach that salvation could not be reached by good things that you do and that it is just God's whim. His sect of Christianity became known as the Lutherans.

Dias' voyage into Indian Ocean


Set out to find a trading route around Africa to India

Columbus' first Voyage

1492 - 1502

Columbus made his first voyage in 1492. after his successful return of stumbling on a new land he subsequently made two more successful voyages. On his last voyage Columbus did not return. This was a very important discovery for it was the first time that Europeans met and visited the new world.

Treaty of Tordesillas


The Treaty of Tordesillaswas important because it was the deciding factor that helped decide who owned what land in the new world. The Pope was the one who decided who got what lands, Spain and Portugal were the two nations included in this treaty.

Safavid dynasty

1501 - 1722

The Safavid dynasty was located in Iran. they were very important because it was the Persian revival and they brought lots of wealth and power to an area that had once been the greatest power in the world.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was alive during the reformation and was one of its most instrumental leaders. later in time he was recognized as the creator of the religious faith Calvinism.

Spanish conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Though increased military power, and the epidemic that struck the Aztec Empire the Spanish took over the Aztec Empire in very short time. They also made alliances with local tribes to conquer the Aztecs.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Under the Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire underwent a transformation. under his rule the Ottoman Empire underwent a full legal system revival and he reconstructed the whole system.

Mughal dynasty

1526 - 1857

The Mughal empire was founded in south Asia and India. Major rulers of the Mughal empire included Akbar the Great who helped create an impressive empire which spanned many centuries and gained vast wealth.

Foundation of Society of Jesus


The society of Jesus was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola. "The Company of Jesus" was to indicate its true leader in the faith as Jesus.

Reign of Akbar

1542 - 1605

Akbar the Great was the greatest of the Mughal rulers. Under his reign the Mughal state grew and prospered.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council of Trent was important because it dealt with the reformation. The council of Trent was convened to talk about the teachings of the reformation and what they had to do to keep control. The council also defined what it meant in its teachings.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo Galilei was a scientist and philosopher who had a very large role in the Scientific revolution. he was the first to create the telescope. He was also very important because he fought the church on certain issues that were scientific in nature,. This led to some of his works being banned by the church.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

The Reign of Emperor Wanli was very important to the formation f the Qing state and his rule helped progress the rule of the Qing dynasty.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada was one of the strongest fleets ever seen in history. At this time the Spanish believed their fleet invincible so it came as a surprise to them when it was destroyed bu the British in 1588.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

Tokugawa shogunate was a feudal type of Japanese government which had clans run by shoguns and ruled the land through a specific type of governmental leadership.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War was a war of religions and decimated the European continent. Through intense fighting and mass casualties the Thirty Years' War was a war fought over the new religions popping up in Europe in this time.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was one of the first of the English enlightenment thinkers. his work on philosophy and theology helped influence later philosophers such as Rousseau and Kant.

Qing dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Qing dynasty ruled in China and helped to create a single Chinese people. in this time China grew and prospered and also created a lot of culturally significant pieces of architecture, art and technology such as the great wall.

Peace of Westphalia


The Peace of Westphalia was a series of treaties that were signed to end the Thirty years War. these treaties helped stop the war that had been ravaging the continent for a long time.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years' War was veruy big war which included most of the world powers at the time. the war is also known as the French and Indian War. in this war the fighting went all across the world and was one of the first world wars.

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia


This was the first colony started in Australia. This colony was started by the English who transported there criminals to the continent and left them there. over the years the British brought around 50,000 criminals to the continent and left them there. they then settled the land of Australia.

End of the British slave trade


The formal act which banned the buying and selling of slaves in England and English colonies, this however did not outlaw slavery, only the buying of slaves themselves.