3rd Block Greece and Rome Review Timeline

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Golden Age of Athens

Pericles rules Athens

461 BC - 429 BC

•A statesman that led during most of the golden age
•Three goals: strengthen Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire and to glorify Athens
Increased the number of public officials

Socrates Goes To Trial

399 BC

Socrates was about 70yr old he was brought for trail for “corrupting the youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s gods”
•He believed that absolute standards did not exist for truth justice
•Socrates said his teachings were good for Athens because they forced people to think about their value and actions
•Jury disagreed and he was sentenced to death
•Died by drinking hemlock, a slow-acting poison

Democracy

621

• Infallible democracy, because the people were misled by Demagogues, Socrates was killed, and they were envious of personal distinction. They also lost two of the three major wars.
• Champions of democracy were considered to be the sailors and soldiers, because they consisted on controlling the government.
• Similar to American democracy, because we both have the legislative to pass laws, the executive carries out the laws, and these are exercised by the people.
• The laws were voted on in Athenian

Olympics

776

• Held in Olympia
• Torch lighting represents the light of spirit, knowledge, and life.
• The purpose was for young men to have the ability to show their strength.

Greek Wars

Sparta puts down the Messenian revolt

650 B.C.

Who was involved?

The Spartans and Messenians

What happened /Definition

The Spartans demanded half of the helots crop and the Messenians resentful of the Spartan's harsh rules revolted

Why this event matters

It led them to want big military styles

How this event impacted the future OR how this event was impacted by past event

it impacted the Spartans by making Sparta a stronger city-state

Taquin the proud overthrown

507 BC

the romans declared that they would never again be ruled by a king so instead they created a republic
• This event involved The citizens of Rome he also married his daughter to Latin nobility to expand the roman empire
• Roman noblemen led by Lucius Junius Brutus. Taquin’s removal marked the end of the Etruscan rule of Rome and the beginning of the Roman Republic.
• Rome created a republic which is a form of government in which power rest with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
• This even impacted the future by giving people the right to choose their leaders and create a republic which is still around today

Persian War

490 B.C. - 479 B.C.

Who was involved
Greece and the Persian Empire

What happened
The Greeks had long been settled there, but around 546 B.C., the Persians conquered the area. When Ionian Greeks revolted, Athens sent ships and soldiers to their aid. The Persian king Darius the Great defeated the rebels and then vowed to destroy Athens in revenge.

Why this event matters
Because of the Persian war Greek city state felt a new sense of confidence and freedom.

How did this event impact the future or how did this event impact past events.

This event impacted the Athens to emerge as the leader of the Delian League, which had grown to some 200 city-states. The prestige of victory over the provinces and the wealth of the Athenian empire set the stage for dazzling burst of creativity in Athens. The city was entering its brief golden age.

Delian League

479 B.C

c. Who was involved (could be specific people, groups of people, or countries)?
Greek City-states, Athens and Persians

d. What happened/definition?
Several Greek city-states formed an alliance; League members continued to press the war against the Persians for several more years.

e. Why this event matters?
They drove the Persians from the territories surrounding Greece and ended the threat of future attacks

f. How this event impacted the future OR how this event was impacted by past events?
Athens took over leadership of the league and dominated all the city-states in it. Pericles used the money from the league’s treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean.

Pheidippides Brings News

470 B.C

c. Who was involved? (could be specific people, groups of people, or countries)
Pheidippides, Athenians, Greek Army

d. What happened/definition?
He race back to Athens, he brought news of the Persian defeat so that Athenians would not give up the city without a fight.

e. Why this event matters?
When the Persians sailed into the harbor, they found the city heavily defended. Also, Pheidippides delivered his message, “Rejoice, we conquer.” He then collapsed and died.

f. How this event impacted the future OR how this event was impacted by past events?
They quickly put to sea retreat.

Peloponnesian War

431 B.C - 401 B.C

A) Athenians and Spartans were involved
B) The Athenians and Spartans were both powerful city- states that wanted to spread their own way of life; that had created a conflict. The Spartans attacked the Athenians because the Spartans did not want to spread democracy and at the end the Spartans won the Peloponnesian War.
C) The war was important because it helped weaken the Athenians.
D) When the Athenians got weaken it led to invasion by King Philip who had a son named Alexander the Great, who conquered most of Asia

Alexander the Great

356 B.C - 323 B.C

A) He was known as the Great Horn was because he was known to have horns. He conquered half of Asia by the age of 32.
B) He was loved by his peers, but eventually power started to corrupt him. He turned vicious and would not allow people to go home because he wanted to explore more of the world.
C) He married an Indian princess to combine the two great nations.
D) He died in 323 in Babylonian, and people assumed he died of malaria but some believed he got poisoned.

Alexander the Great

Roman Republic

The Early Republic

509 B.C.

• Patricians and Plebeians
• After the last kind of Rome the Romans established a republic. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
• Rome had achieved a balanced government
• The republic could appoint of a dictator. Both Legislative and administrative functions in the republic and the senate exercised great influence over both foreign and domestic policy.

The Twelve Tables are written

451 bc

• The plebians wanted to force the creation of a written law code. Ten officials carved Roman laws on twelve tablets or tables and hung in the forum.
• They became the basis laws of later Roman.
• The twelve tables established the idea of all free citizens had a right to protect the laws.

Punic Wars

264 B.C. - 146 B.C.

• Hannibal was general of Carthage and Scipio was general of Rome
• Definition- a series of there wars between Rome and Carthage ; resulted in destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance over the western Mediterranean
• The first war was for control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean. The second Hannibal wanted to capture Spain but he was unsuccessful. The third was Rome laid siege to Carthage and Carthage was now known as a roman territory.
• This was impacted by past events because Rome fought and became masters of nearly all of Italy and Carthage was in direct opposition with Rome.

Julius Caesar becomes dictator for life

59 B.C.

• Caesar joined forces with Crassus and Pompey and the senate of Rome.
• Julius Caesar worked his way up in the government through military victories to become a consul. In 59 B.C. Caesar became “dictator for life”.
• Caesar set the way for rulers after him, and he made it so that Roman citizenship for people outside Italy, expanded senate to make it more representative of empire, ordered landowners to use free men for 1/3 of work force, created more jobs, created colonies for Rome’s landless poor, and created the modern calendar.
• He governed as the absolute rulers and he started a number of reforms for Rome.

Caesar is killed and civil war breaks out

44 B.C.

• Caesars supporters came together to crush the assassins of Caesar and then Caesar’s 18-year old grandnephew and son Octavian joined Mark Antony and Lepidus.
• In 43 B.C. they took control of Rome and riled for ten years as the Second Triumvirate.
• Octavian become the ruler of Rome and accepted the title of “Augustus”. Rome was now an empire ruled by one man. Rome was at its peak in 27 B.C. to A.D. 180 because of the rule of Augustus. This period of peace and prosperity was known as the Pax Romana

Pax Romana

Pax Romana

27 B.C - 180 A.D

Augustus was involved with this and the city of Rome
War was going on and they came up with Pax Romana a period of peace and prosperity
It was peace and people didn’t die all the time without it the wars would still be going
If the Pax Romana wasn’t made then today we would still have little wars and and people arguing all the time

• Octavian becomes the first emperor, Augustus

27

• Augustus became the first ruler in 27 BC
• Rome
• Rome was now an empire ruled by one man
• He ruled Rome
• He became the supreme commander

Rise of Christianity

juesus begins his ministry

63 B.C

Title: Juses begins his ministry
Even date:63 B.C
Who was invoived: Christians
What happened: He stressed the importance of people’s love for God ,neighbor, and their enemies
Why this event matters: for people who sincerely repented their sins.
How this event impacted the future: it started one of the world largest religion

Rome takes over Judea

6 AD

• Romans and Jews were involved
• At First the Jewish Kingdom remained independent. Rome then took over Judea and made it a province of the empire.
• This is an important event because after this, according to the bible, God had promised that a savior would arrive and restore the kingdom of the Jews and that’s when Jesus was born.
• This event caused for Jesus to be put to death.

Constantine Accepts Christianity

12 A.D.

• Roman emperor Constantine and Christians were involved
• One day before a battle Constantine prayed for divine help, he then reported that he saw an image of a cross- a symbol of Christianity. After being victories in the battle he announced an end to the persecution of Christians.
• That’s when Edict of Milan came
• This is important because that’s why Christianity is still big now in the U.S.

jeusus is excuted

29 ad

Jesus is executed
Date: 29A.D.
Involved: roman government
What happened: the roman government accused Jesus of defying the authority of Rome and sentenced him to a crucifixion
Why does this event matter: three days after being killed his body was gone, people believed he ascended into heaven
Effects: this event started Christianity, one of the largest religions.

Paul spreads Jesus' word

29 AD

Event title: Paul spreads Jesus’ word
Event date: A.D 29
Who was involved: The apostle Paul
What happened /definition: He spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting Christ’s teachings.

Why this event matters?: This is important because he contributed that people and other cities started believe in Christianity
How this event impacted the future or how this event was impacted by past events.
Paul stressed that Jesus was the son of god who died for people’s sins and declared that Christianity should be welcome all converts Jew or Gentile (non- Jew). This caused Christianity could be a big religion quickly around the world.

edict of milan

313 ad

Edict of Milan

Date: 313 A.D.

Involved: Constantine

What happened: he ended the persecution of christens and declared Christianity to be approved by the emperor

Why does it matter: it spread much faster than before

Effects: it became the official religion of the Roman Empire

Roman Emperors

Plato writes The Republic

370 bc

Plato writes The Republic
a. Plato writes The Republic
b. Wrote the book around 370BC
c. It was most of Socrates teachings were in the book
d. The book told what the perfect governed society was
e. It was a very famous book and teachers used it to teach
f. It impacted the future by teaching the younger generation from the book

Augustus

63 B.C - 14 A.D

•What did he do:
_He was the most powerful ruler of the mightiest empire of the ancient world.
_He stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with splendid public buildings, and created a system of government that survived for centuries.
_He set up a civil service: paid workers to manage the affairs of government, such as the grain supply, tax collection, and the postal system.
_In Augustus’s time, a silver coin called denarius was in use throughout the empire.
•How this emperor impacted the future : He began the period of peace and prosperity which is known as Pax Romana

Nero

54 A.D - 68 A.D

• What did he do –good administrator but vicious & persecuted Christians
• Why this event maters-murdered many

Trajan

98 A.D - 117 A.D

• What did he do-empire reached its greatest extent
• Why this event maters-he undertook vast building program
And enlarged social welfare

Marcus Aurelius

161 A.D - 180 A.D

• What did he do-he brought empire to height of economic prosperity and defeated invaders
• Why this event matters- he wrote philosophy

Diocletian

244 A.D - 311 A.D

•What did he do:
_ He was a strong-will army leader.
_ He divided the empire in two because it was too big
_He doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods.
_He took the Eastern half himself
_His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire’s great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West.
•How this emperor impacted the future: His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire’s great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West.

Constantine

274 A.D - 337 A.D

•What did he do:
_He gained control of western part of the empire and continued many of the social and economic policies of Diocletian.
_ He moved the capital from Rome to the Greek City of Byzantium, in what is now Turkey.
_ He put the Christian symbol on his soldier’s shields.
_He declared Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor.
•How this emperor impacted the future: He moved the capital from Rome to the Greek City of Byzantium, in what is now Turkey.

Fall of the Roman Empire

Gladiator Games are given as a distraction

250 A.D.

Who was involved: slaves and volunteers
What happened: People would either fight each other or other animals
Why this event matters: it helped people have a break in the day to go watch people fight against one another to the death. There were 150 holidays dedicated to this.
How the Gladiator games impacted the future: The gladiator games are just like the super bowl we have today. Thousands of people either go to the game or watch it on TV.

Diocletian becomes emporer

284 A.D.

Who was involved: Diocletian and the Roman Empire
What happened: He became emperor and split Rome in half. He also made a lot of good changes to how Rome was ran.
Why this event matters: He split Rome in half and took control of the western side.
How this event impacted the future: The east prevailed while the west went to ruins also civil war broke out.

Huns move into Germany

370 A.D.

Who was involved: Mongol Huns and German Barbarians
What happened: The Mongols moved into Germany and started destroying everything in their path!!
Why this event matters: It forced Germany to flee and start destroying/conquer Roman lands.
How this event impacted the future: When the Huns invaded Germany the Germans invaded Rome which eventually caused its downfall

Military Problems

400 A.D.

Who was involved: Mercenary’s and Romans

What happened/ Definition: Roman soldiers lost their patriotism and the government then decided to hire mercenary’s as solider because they were cheaper thus causing the downfall of Rome.

Why this matters: Bad soldiers don’t win battles and with the barbarians coming they cannot afford to have bad soldiers.

How did this event impact the future or past events: This event caused Europe to go into the Dark Ages

Weakening of rome's econonmy

400 A.D.

Who was involved: Marcus Aurelius
What happened: They reached their limit of expansion, and lacked new sources of gold and silver. Desperate for money the government raised taxes. But then the value of money just went down, which is also known as inflation.
Why it matters: Because it is about when the Roman empires economy dropped, and a lot of people suffered.
Impact: This is when Rome fell, there for it was a good thing.

An Empire no more

476 A.D.

Who was involved: Romulus Augustulus and Byzantine empire
What happened: Romulus Augustulus was ousted be German forces and the western side was no more.
Why this matters: Half of the Roman empire was demolished
How this event impacted the future: This event caused the Byzantine empire to emerge.

Byzantine Empire