Burial practices of human remains is shown to occur in Egypt as early as 3100 BC. Mummification which is an art of artificially preserving of dead human (or animal) remains through evisceration and employment of dessicants such as "natron", spices, resins, pitch to purge the body of as much liquid as possible to slow "decomposition" (the process of autolysis, hydrolysis, putrefaction and eventual decay), wrap the remains in linen and entomb within a coffin and then a sarcophagus (outer burial container) is shown to have begun by 2600 BC According to archaeological record.
Funeral Practices of Human Civilization - From Ancient Egypt to The Renaissance
3100 BC - 1700
From The Ancient Egyptians Through The Renaissance
Stonehenge is built on British Isles (3100 BC)
Neolithic Age (New Stone Age - 3000 BC - 2000 BC)
3000 BC - 2000 BC
Oldest known use of embalming
According to archaeologic record this is the oldest known human remains that show signs of being embalmed in the fashion known as mummification in Ancient Egypt.
Birth of the Hebrew religion of Judaism
Bronze Age (2000 BC - 1500 BC)
2000 BC - 1500 BC
Mycenae (Ancient Greece)
1600 BC - 529 AD
Laying Out Of The Dead
Moses and the the Exodus from Egypt
Hebrews leave Egypt guided by Moses. 10 Commandments issued.
Middle Bronze Age (1500 BC - 1000 BC)
1500 BC - 1000 BC
The Trojan War
Late Bronze Age (1000 BC - 600 BC)
1000 BC - 600 BC
753 BC - 476 AD
Glazed Coffins of Babylon
Not only was Babylon known for One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World but they also had glazed earthenware coffins
Iron Age (600 BC - 200 )
600 BC - 200
Herodotus visits Egypt
Greek chronicler Herodotus (Father of History) visits Egypt for the first time and documents the Egyptian practice of embalming and mummification.
Alexander the Great of Macedonia
356 BC - 323 BC
247 BC - 182 BC
Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history
100 BC - 44 BC
69 BC - 30 BC
Birth of the historic Jesus of Nazereth
Birth of Christ
Subsequently the Birth of Chrisianity
Crucifixion & Entombment of Jesus Christ (29 AD)
Emperor Constantine Converts to Christianity
Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Edict of Milan (Christianity no longer outlawed)
Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which no longer considers Christianity as illegal. No more having to practice religion underground in the catacombs
Council of Nicea - Birth of the Roman Catholic Church
William the Conqueror defeats the Angles and Saxons, liberating England
1095 - 1272
A total of 9 Crusades were launched during this time whereby Europeans set about to free the Holy Land from the invading Muslims.
Mondino de' Luzzi
1270 - 1326
Italian physician and anatomist who advanced the systemic teaching of anatomy. Performed many dissections and wrote his life's work Anathomia Mundini in 1316 which was later published in 1478.
Guy de Chauliac
1300 - 1368
Anatomist who taught Pietro d'Argellata.
100 Years War
1337 - 1453
Englishmen Edward of York and the Earl of Suffolk are killed in battle at Agincourt, France. The Pope declares an edict that states if you should die while abroad the Church will allow disarticulation and boiling of the remains in order to allow the bones receive a proper Christian burial on home soil.
Funeral Law of Milan
Milanese Sumptuary Law
The Black Death (Bubonic Plague)
1348 - 1350
1.5 million people would die. 1/3 of the known world's population succumbs to the disease.
Sumptuary law of Aquila
Funeral Law of Faenza
Pietro d'Argellata (Physician and Surgeon embalms Pope Alexander V)
Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua. Pupil of Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368). published 6 books on surgery entitled the Chirurgia.
Created various methods of cavity embalming.
Dante's Divine Comedy is published
The Spanish Inquisition
1478 - 1834
Tomas Torquemada appointed Grand Inquisitor after King Ferdinand and Isabella have the Papal Bull granted from Pope Sixtus IV in 1478 ending in 1834. Religious and ethnic cleansing torture and kill a great deal of Jews, and anyone else who is not Catholic.
Andreas Vesalius (Physician)
1514 - 1564
Flemish anatomist who published the most influential book on anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica.