This segment spans the time from Ancient Egypt into the Renaissance. (3100 BC- 1700 AD).
Burial practices of human remains is shown to occur in Egypt as early as 3100 BC. Mummification which is an art of artificially preserving of dead human (or animal) remains through evisceration and employment of dessicants such as "natron", spices, resins, pitch to purge the body of as much liquid as possible to slow "decomposition" (the process of autolysis, hydrolysis, putrefaction and eventual decay), wrap the remains in linen and entomb within a coffin and then a sarcophagus (outer burial container) is shown to have begun by 2600 BC According to archaeological record.
From The Ancient Egyptians Through The Renaissance
According to archaeologic record this is the oldest known human remains that show signs of being embalmed in the fashion known as mummification in Ancient Egypt.
Laying Out Of The Dead
Hebrews leave Egypt guided by Moses. 10 Commandments issued.
Not only was Babylon known for One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World but they also had glazed earthenware coffins
Greek chronicler Herodotus (Father of History) visits Egypt for the first time and documents the Egyptian practice of embalming and mummification.
Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history
Birth of Christ
Subsequently the Birth of Chrisianity
Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which no longer considers Christianity as illegal. No more having to practice religion underground in the catacombs
Founding of the Roman Catholic Church
Attilla the Hun - The Church denounces him as the "Scourge of God"
St. John Chrysostom dies (407 AD)
Emperor who defeats the Barbarian invasion of Rome by Barbarian King Odoacer.
Emperor Justinian (last Roman Emperor) among other things forbids Interment in cities opting for municipal cemeteries in coffins and sarcophagi.
During 590-604 AD he encouraged intramural interment as a right of all Christians.
10 Regulations issued regarding regulations on burying the clergy.
Attempted to stamp out intramural burial by creating extramural cemeteries consecrated by the Roman Catholic Church away from population centers. Was buried intramurally in the church.
William the Conqueror defeats the Angles and Saxons, liberating England
A total of 9 Crusades were launched during this time whereby Europeans set about to free the Holy Land from the invading Muslims.
Italian physician and anatomist who advanced the systemic teaching of anatomy. Performed many dissections and wrote his life's work Anathomia Mundini in 1316 which was later published in 1478.
Anatomist who taught Pietro d'Argellata.
Englishmen Edward of York and the Earl of Suffolk are killed in battle at Agincourt, France. The Pope declares an edict that states if you should die while abroad the Church will allow disarticulation and boiling of the remains in order to allow the bones receive a proper Christian burial on home soil.
Milanese Sumptuary Law
1.5 million people would die. 1/3 of the known world's population succumbs to the disease.
Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua. Pupil of Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368). published 6 books on surgery entitled the Chirurgia.
Created various methods of cavity embalming.
Tomas Torquemada appointed Grand Inquisitor after King Ferdinand and Isabella have the Papal Bull granted from Pope Sixtus IV in 1478 ending in 1834. Religious and ethnic cleansing torture and kill a great deal of Jews, and anyone else who is not Catholic.
Flemish anatomist who published the most influential book on anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica.