"Sadae" with China
2. Foreign competition for control over Korea (Korea fought back)
a. Conflicts with French, American, Japanese Forces
-Huge quantities of silver dollars flowed out of China.
-Emperor sent official to Canton to burn thousands of Opium.
-Upset British merchants, who reported to the British Government, who launched a war.
-Open 5 ports, abolish kehang system, pay indemnity lower tariff, allow Christian proselytizing in larger areas, cede Hong Kong, grant extraterritoriality.
-Treaty of national humiliation.
-Chinese govt gave out concessions, to open five ports (Previously only 1 port in Canton, merchant of govt),abolished kehang system (Foreigners now could trade with anyone they want, and bargain), payed in damages incurred during the war, lowered tariffs.
-Extraterritoriality: give foreigners immunity to legal system in China. Most China could do was force you out, could not be tried.
-Concessions made to other western powers
-Impact on Canton and the local people.
*Position of port had declined, water too shallow for big ships.
*Local cooks, flower boats, entertainers of foreigners, etc lost jobs, could not leave, punishment was severe.
*Must pay higher taxes.
-One of the biggest peasants' movement
-Started in Guangshi province
Between US and Japan. a. Foreigners gained right to extraterritoriality
b. Missionaries trade.
Forced Contact with West began in 1854
1. Matthew Perry forced Japan to open its door in 1855
a. Government divided into two. One wanted to fight back, others, reformers emerged as dominant
force, choosing to sign treaty.
Protect free white labor from Chinese coolie Labor) (2$ tax to Chinese)
change back to old ways, but actually peaceful and drastic reform. Emperor restored but feudal system abolished.
-Compensated the old military ruling class (Samurai) by paying them (retirement package to give up
status as samurai)
b. Industrialization, militarization, and modernization
-New Basis for taxation, 367,000 farmers dispossessed of their land
-Military draft, every men to a certain age must serve in the military.
2 horse, 4$ tax, No horses, 15$ tax) Chinese didn't use horses.
b. Conflict with Japan
-Korea lost. Japan forced Korea to open trade.
-Secured privilege to open pawnshop and bank,
-Forced Korea to give up tributary relationship with China
Chinese were neither black nor white
4. Japan declared Korea as its protectorate: 1905
a. Korea is clearly under Japan's wing
Korea becomes part of Japan
US laws applicable in Hawaii.
Japanese were not Caucasian.
Indians were Caucasian but not white.
Philippines becomes an independent nation. Filipinos are changed from nationals to Aliens, annual quota of 50 entering into US.
*Privileges for American merchants and Missionaries in China
*2 Clauses specified people of US and China had mutual obligation/privilege to trade/work/live
*Had same power as federal law
Recognized China's right of eminent domain over all of its territory;
Gave China the right to appoint consuls at ports in the United States, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia";
Provided that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and
Granted certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
a. Made illegal for Chinese/Japanese/Mongolian woman who came for the purpose of prostitution
-Women auctioned off to brothels
-Discouraged Chinese women to come to US, even if they had legitimate reasons
-Trying to forclose Chinese family, development of Chinese family culture.
b. People from China/Japan/Mongolia could not come as contract laborers
Chinese were neither white nor black
2. Affirmed in 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
a. Labor excluded for 10 years
b. Alien ineligible for citizenship
c. If you are already here before 1882, you can leave and reenter
a. Plantation owners tried to recruit Japanese laborers.
b. Japanese organized strikes, Chinese became fewer
d. Only able to come for temporary reasons (Merchants, students, missionaries)
Reentry certificates were void.
a. Hardship on Chinese, most were bachelors with children/wife back home
b. Wiped out Chinese population in the US quickly
a. Chinese Exclusion Act extended for 10 more years
b. Chinese must carry registration cards
c. Put on Deportation list immediately if not carrying card on them
If you marry an Alien, you lost your citizenship (if you're a woman)
a. Practice of "picture brides"
-get married without seeing each other. Matchmakers put pictures together.
b. Not a law, Japanese government promised not to issue passports to Japanese that wanted to come to
US, Japanese government didn't want their people to leave Japan
c. Allowed women to come to US to join husbands
Immigration Act of 1917
a. Create arbitrary line/zone (All of Asia) No one from barred zone would be able to come to US
a. Japanese government only issue passports to already married women
Allows Women to maintain citizenship even if they marry an Alien so long as they're not Asian (Alien ineligible for citizenship)
Non-picture brides unable to go to US.
The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans, among them Jews who had migrated in large numbers since the 1890s to escape persecution in Poland and Russia, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians, and Indians. According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity".