Untitled timeline

The Greek World

The Minoan

4000 BCE - 1400 BCE

Minoan civilization of Crete based its prosperity on extensive commerce

The Mycenaean civilization

2000 BCE - 1150 BCE

developed heavily fortified cities
based prosperity: trade and warfare

Dark Age

1150 BCE - 800 BCE

Dorians conquered the Peloponnesus (peninsula of Southern Greece)

The Age of Pericles

460 BCE - 429 BCE

The highest point of Athenian society and its democracy
Athens become a world commercial center and cosmopolitan city
Sparta : totalitarian and militaristic state dependent on slave labor to sustain its agricultural system

The Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Its a war of Athens against Sparta

Hellenic Age

356 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander the Great of Macedonia establish
fusion of Greek culture with the east
City-state replaced by Bureaucracy conquered : Persia, Asia Minor and Egypt

Roman World

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Roman society divided into:
1.the patricians(propertied class)
2. plebians ( main body of Roman citizens)
3. slaves
Roman government:
3.the Centurial Assembly

The Punic Wars

246 BCE - 146 BCE

After the Punic wars, Rome emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean

Caesar assassination

44 BCE - 43 BCE

The Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 AD

Agustus became the first emperor

27 BCE - 26 BCE

Roman Empire decline

2 AD - 476 AD
  1. Economic and Political decline
  2. The empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empires
  3. Barbarian invasions by the Goaths, Vandals, and Huns
  4. The eastern Roman Empire survived at Constantinople

Causes for the fall of Roman Empire:
1. Barbaric invasion
2. Internal Factors( political instability, decreasing farm production, inflation, excessive taxation, the decline militaries and the use of mercenaries)
3. the rise of Christianity

2. road contructions
3. monumental architecture ( Colosseum and aqueducts )
4. continue the Greek Lit, art, and sculpture

The Rise of Christianity

Jesus was Born

6 BC - 5 BC

Constantine convert to Christianity

313 AD - 314 AD

Agustine( great Christian Philosopher)

354 AD - 430 AD

Christianity become official Roman religion

380 AD - 381 AD

reasons for the spread of Christianity:
1. Individual conviction in one beliefs had grown during the Roman persecution period
2. The efficiency and organization of the early church administration
3. doctrines that stress on equality and immortality
4. Constantine conversion
5. establishment of supremacy of the pope

The Byzantine civilization ( The New Rome)

476 AD - 1453 AD

Byzantine accomplishment:
1. Greek language and cultural accomplishments preserved
2. Center of the world trade and exchange culture
3. codification of Roman law ( justinian code)
4. eastern orthodox church
5. New focus for art

The rise of Islam

The teachings of Mohammed

570 AD - 632 AD

The spread of islam started in 7 century

The Battle of Tours

732 AD - 733 AD

The Muslim empire was ruled by caliphs
Muslim conquered much of Byzantine and Persian empires, including North Africa and Spain

Muslim empire divided:
The Abbasids overthrew Ummayads - the capital moved to Baghdad

The Ottoman Empire expanded territory, Constantinople was the center

Charles Martel halted( stop) the Muslim advance into Europe

The Early Middle Ages ( The Age of reconstruction)

Society in Middle Ages was based on Feudal system

Clovis converted to Christianity

481 AD - 511 AD

The Dark Ages of Rome

500 AD - 800 AD

Franks become the dominant Germanic tribe


768 AD - 814 AD

Crowned as the Emperor of the Romans
Revive the concept of Holy Roman Empire and establish ober secular rulers

The Treaty of Verdun

843 AD - 844 AD

Divided Charlemagne's empire among his three grandson

The Later Middle Ages

1000 AD - 1500 AD

The Holy Roman Empire during the late Middle Ages
1. The pope was dominant in religious matters and the monarch in secular matters
2. a continuing power struggle evolved between the papacy and the secular rule

Society was based on strict class divisio: clergy and nobility were the privileged class , peasants and artisants were the work force, and serfs were tied to land

The Middle Ages were the transition between ancient and modern Europe

The decline of feudalism and the rise of manoralism

The Magna Carta

1215 AD - 1216 AD

limited the power of the King

The Hundred Years of War

1337 AD - 1453 AD

Between England and France resulted in English being driven

English Parliament firmly establish

1400 AD - 1410 AD

The House of Lords( titled nobility) and the House of Commons( gentry and middle class) composed parliament

The Renaissance ( 1350 - 1660)

The Renaissance begin in Italy during the fourteenth century
1. Conflicts between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire resulted in regional autonomy for the Italian city states

By the 1400 the move toward secularization was dominant

The Renaissance

1350 AD - 1660 AD

General characteristics:
The emphasis was on man rather than on God
There was a reawakening of rebirth of classical models
The ideal of the "universal man" was widely held

Emphasis on Humanism
secularism: writings of the Greek and Roman and commentaries on their works
free politics and governance from Church control
realism and formalism:
art that emphasize the lives of everyday iife, realistic rather than idealized

The Reformation

The Reformation

1483 AD - 1563 AD

The secularism created tension between princely kingdom and the authority of the church, that led to the rift of the Church, the rise of Protestant Faith and more than a century religious warfare

Reasons for reformation:
1. dissatisfaction with church ritual
2. human emphasized man's needs and concerns
3. the printing press allowed mass communication

Martin Luther( 1483-1546) questioning the right of the pope to grant indulgences
Luther's ninety five theses

Calvinism made Protestantism an international movement
it became anti-catholic movement

The Act of Supremacy

1534 AD - 1535 AD

The beginning of English Reformation

The King become the head of the church
the pope's refusal to annul the marriage of Henry VII to Catherine Aragon initiated the break

The Council of Trent

1543 AD - 1563 AD

Define doctrines of Catholicism and reinforced papal authority

Society of jesus became the official response to the reformation
Jesuits also initiated missionary and educational endeavors

Elizabeth I establish Protestantism

1558 AD - 1603 AD

The Age of Enlightenment