Timeline Period 4 By: Patrick R. Groleau

Red: Europe, the Americas, and Africa Green: Asia Blue: Middle East


Ottoman Dynasty

1299 - 1922

The Ottoman Dynasty was a Turkish Dynasty which reached its heyday in the 16th century. It stretched from Turkey to Greece to Egypt. The Ottomans sacked Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul, and were one of the armies fighting during WWI.

Songhay Empire

1375 - 1591

The Songhay Empire lasted from 1375-1591. It was one of the last great Islamic Empires in west Africa. They created a vast empire with a navy on the Niger river. The Songhay was an intellectual, spiritual and economic powerhouse before it was taken over by Morocco in the late 16th century.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Prince Henry the Navigator was a Prince of Portugal during the 15th century. He sent many ships to explore the west coast of Africa. He did not go on any expeditions himself, but he is the driving force that later became Portuguese control of West Africa.

Beginning of the Portuguese Slave Trade


The Portuguese slave trade began in 1441 CE. Twelve Africans are brought back to Portugal as slaves. This event leads to the beginnings of Atlantic slave trade, and the horror and grief that went along with force able movement of over ten million people and their treatment on the Plantations.

Reign of Mehmud the Conqueror

1444 - 1481

Mehmud the Conqueror was a Ottoman sultan during the 15th century. During his rule he conquered Constantinople and Asia Minor. He is considered one of the Ottoman's greatest rulers, expanding his empire across Eurasia.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali was the first King of the Songhay Empire. He captured and fortified many cities such as Tiimbuktu and Djenne. Sunni Ali created the Nile navy and founded an Empire that would control much of West Africa for hundreds of years.

Martin Luther

9/10/1483 - 2/18/1546

Martin Luther was a monk responsible for the Protestant Reformation. His 95 Theses, which combated his views of Catholic corruption, sparked the beginnings of several religions, and lessened the power of the Catholic church in Europe. He translated the Bible into German and founded the Lutheran religion.

Dias' First Voyage into the Indian Ocean

1487 - 1488

Bartholomew Dias left Portugal in 1487 to explore the west coast of Africa. In 1488 he rounded the Cape of Good Hope and found a sea route into the Indian Ocean. This lead to the surge of European colonization and the rise of Capitalism and Mercantilism. Adam Smith and Karl Marx both described this as the most important event in human history.

Columbus' First Voyage

8/3/1492 - 3/15/1493

Columbus left Spain on August 3rd, 1492 and set sail west to reach the spice islands. What he discovered was something very different. Columbus found the Americas, which caused changing of societies in the world, with the introduction of new crops, movement of slaves, and the sale of luxury goods across the world. He accidentally found two new continents.

Treaty of Tordesillas


The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty signed setting the boundaries of the Spanish and Portuguese in the new world. Spain took control of Peru, using its silver to amass large sums of wealth. Portugal took Brazil and its sugar plantations. The sugar plantations were extremely brutal and were the largest importer of African slaves, fueling the slave trade in Africa.

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1736

The Safavid was a "Gunpowder Empire" that last from 1501-1736 in modern day Iran. It was formed as a Shi'a government after a rebellion from the Ottomans. The Safavids worked as a middle along the silk road, trading European and Indian goods. They laid the foundation for Shi'a Islam in Iran and were patrons of Fine Arts and Architecture.

John Calvin

7/10/1509 - 5/27/1564

John Calvin was a Protestant reformer and the starter of the Calvinist religion in France, and Switzerland. Calvinists afraid their religion would be persecuted formed the rebellion which started the Thirty Years War, which eventually led to the Seven Years War which established England and France as world powers.

The Spanish Conquest of Mexico

1519 - 1521

Starting in 1519 Hernan Cortes started his conquest of Mexico. Cortes used the superior technology and the help of local tribes to take over Tenochtitlan and defeat Montezuma. With the destruction of the Aztecs led to the Spanish taking over Mexico, which they would control several hundred years past.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Suleyman the Magnificent was a Ottoman Sultan who saw his Dynasty through its golden age. He created a strong agricultural base in his empire and expanded his territory through many Muslim cities, and the Balkan region as well. He reformed agriculture and law within his Dynasty, as well as promoted culture in his Dynasty.

The Mughal Dynasty

1526 - 1857

The Mughal Dynasty was founded by Babur in 1526. It was India's "Gundpowder Empire", stretching across almost all of India. Animosity between the Hindus and Muslims was exacerbated during the latter years of the Mughal Empire continue to this day. Even with this animosity the Mughals were one of India's greatest empires, creating the Taj Mahal, and a vast empire.

Foundation of the Society of Jesus


The Society of Jesus was founded September 27th, 1540 as a counter Reformation group. The were a group of missionaries that spread the teachings of Jesus. They traveled very far, even to China, where they could spread ideas, and new technologies, including European guns.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent formed in answer to the Protestant Reformation. It addressed many of complaints people had at the time of the Catholic Church. It was a significant time in European history because the Catholics were trying to fix the corruption in Europe. They ended the sale of indulgences, but still did not let anyone read the Bible.

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Akbar the Great was a Mughal emperor. He stressed religious tolerance. He ruled with absolute rule, yet he spent his time debating government and religion in his palace. Akbar is the man that made the Mughal Dynasty what it is today.

Galileo Galilei

2/15/1564 - 1/8/1642

Galileo was an Italian scientist from the 16-17th centuries. He created the telescope and more importantly the scientific method which forms the basis of modern science today. His ideas went against the church and his Copernican model of the universe left him in house arrest until the day he died.

Reign of Emperor Wanli

7/19/1572 - 8/18/1620

Emperor Wanli was the longest reigning and final Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. His rule was plagued with corruption, economic and military problems. During his reign Manchurians were already planning and when he died the Qing Dynasty was formed.

The Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada was a fleet of ships sent to attack Britain in the late 16th century. The Armada reached England where is was attacked losing many ships. The Armada retreated around Ireland and Scotland, where it was barraged by storms. In the end 50 out of 130 ships never made it back to Spain and the attack was a flop.

The Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

The Tokugawa Shogunate arose from a civil war in Japan at the end of the 16th century. The Shogunate was ruled by a military ruler called a Shogun and was extremely centralized, ruled out of its capital of Edo. During this time Japan closed its borders to most foreigners until Commodore Perry arrived 1854

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War started in 1618 and fought for the religious and politcal scape of Europe. After a series of Protestant rebellions were quelled, the Hapsburgs of Germany soon grew very powerful. They took on attacks from all over Europe and were finally defeated by France. The War ended with the Peace of Westphalia which set France up as the strongest power in Europe at the time.

John Locke

8/28/1634 - 10/28/1704

John Locke was a British philosopher who created the idea of the natural rights: Life, Liberty and Property. His ideas created the foundation of what would be the American Revolution and American Constitution.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Qing Dynasty was created after the fall of the Ming Dynasty and was the final Dynasty in the Dynastic Cycle. During the Qing Manchurian Emperors took over territory from Manchuria, to Taiwan, to just north of Vietnam. The Qing Dynasty created many new agricultural practices, as well as stressed the importance of Confucianism in China.

The Peace of Westphalia

1646 - 1648

The Peace of Westphalia was a treaty which ended the Thirty Years War. It greatly weakened Hapsburg Germany and set France as the world power. The Peace of Westphalia protected the Protestant religion, and also paved way for the Seven Years War.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years' War was a war involving all the Powers of Europe. It led to losing of French power and land to the British and the Spanish and also strengthened the 13 colonies because it got rid of its competitors to the north and south. The taxation of the British after the Seven Years' War set the stage for the American Revolution.

Establishment of the First Colony in Australia


On January 26th, 1788 736 prisoners were sent to the Britain's first penal colony Botany Bay. Not only did this solve Britain's crime problem, but it also set the foundations for the Country/Continent of Australia that is known today.

End of the British Slave Trade


On March 25, 1807 the slave trade ended in Britain. The slave trade was begging to seem both immoral and non-economical. This is one of the earliest ending of the slave trade and it paved way for other nations to follow in suit.