Chapter 20

General/ Political History (War, rulers, treaties, . . .)

Francois-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

1743 - 1803

A slave that emerged as the leader of the Haitian Revolution.

Tory ministry of Lord Liverpool

1770 - 1828

Was prepared to deal with problems of postwar dislocation and sought to protect the interests of the land and wealthy classes.


1773 - 1859

Austrian prince who was the chief architect of the Vienna settlement.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The French colony of Haiti achieved independence. Key importance (1) sparked by policies of the French Revolution overflowing into its New World Empire and (2) Haitian Revolution demonstrated that slaves of African origins could lead a revolt.

full-fledged slave rebellion


A full-fledged slave rebellion shook Haiti. It arose as a result of a secret conspiracy among the slaves.

Abolish slavery


!French abolished slavery in Haiti.

Rule of Frederick William III

1797 - 1840

1815 he promised some form of constitutional government. 1817 he reneged on his pledge. 1819 he replaced reform-minded ministers with hardened conservatives. 1823 he established eight provincial estates dominated by the Junkers.

Combination Acts


Outlawed workers' organizations.

Haitian Dominance


By 1800, L'Ouverture's army had achieved dominance throughout the island of Hispanola. he imposed an authoritarian constitution and mad himself Governor-General for life, he preserved formal ties with France.

Catholic Emancipation Act


Sent Irish members to the House of Commons but only Protestant Irishmen.

Alexander I takes throne

1801 - 1825

Took the lead in suppressing liberalism and nationalism. Died unexpectedly with no direct heir and Junior officers plotted to rally troops for cause of reform.

L'Overture captured


Napoleon sent an army to Haiti and eventually captured L'Overture, who was sent to France where he died in prison in 1803.

Haitian independence


The Haitian slave-led rebellion became the first successful assault on colonial government in Latin America. France formally recognized Haitian independence in 1804.

Kara George

1804 - 1813

Serbian leader that led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans that ultimately helped build national self-identity and attracted the interest of the great powers.

Span of Revolution

1804 - 1824

France driven from Haiti, Portugal lost control of Brazil, and Spain was force to withdraw from all of its American empire except Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Center of Revolt


The center of revolt was the city of Buenos Aires whose citizens had fought off British invasion and learned they could protect themselves since 1806

Napoleon invades Portugal


Napoleon invaded Portugal and made his own brother king of Spain in 1808. The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil and established its government there.

Creole juntas right to govern

1808 - 1810

Creole juntas, or political committees, claimed the right to govern different regions of Latin America.



the junta in Buenos Aires not only thrust off Spanish authority, but also sent forces into Paraguay and Uruguay to liberate them from Spain.

Venezuela Civil War

1811 - 1814

Civil war broke out throughout Venezula as both royalists, slaves, and llanerors (cowboys) challenged the republican government.

Bourbon Ferdinand VII of Spain reighn

1814 - 1833

Promised to govern according to a written constitution. He ignored his pledge.

No Constitutional Government


Responsible constitutional government existed nowhere in Europe in 1815.

Brazil a Kingdom


Domestic unrest


From 1815 onward all nations confronted domestic unrest

Corn Laws


Parliament passed a Corn Law that maintain high prices for domestically produced grain.

Milos Obrenovitch

1815 - 1816

New leader that succeeded in negotiating greater administrative autonomy for some Serbian territory.

Parliament replaces


Parliament replaced income tax that only the wealthy paid with excise or sales taxes. Marked abandonment by British ruling class of its traditional role of paternalistic protector of the poor.

King Joao Vi returned to Portugal


He left Dom Pedro as regent in Brazil and encouraged him to be sympathetic to the political aspirations of the Brazilians.

Jose de San Martin


the leading general of the Rio de la Plata forces, led an army in a daring march over the Andes Mountains and occupied Santiago in Chile, where the Chilean independence leader Bernardo O'Higgins was established as supreme dictator. and in 1820 he carried army by sea to Peru and drove royalist forces from Lima and became Protector of Peru.



One club organized a celebration for the fourth anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig and the tercentenary of Luther's Ninety-five Theses. The event made rulers uneasy because the student clubs included a few republicans.

Coercion Acts

March 1817

Temporarily suspended habeas corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings.

First Congress


First Congress of the Congress System took place at Aix-la-Chapelle in Germany. Resulted in the four major powers removed their troops from France.

August von Kotzebue assassination

March 1819

Karl Sand, Burschenschaft member, assassinated conservative dramatist August von Kotzbue who ridiculed the Burschenschaft.

Carlsbad Decrees

July 1819

Metternich persuaded major German states to issue the Carlsbad Decrees. It dissolved the Burschenschaften and provided for university inspectors and press censors.

Peterloo Massacre

August 16 1819

A well-organized mass meeting demanding Parliamentary reform that culminated on August 16, 1819 at Saint Peter's Fields outside Manchester. A local magistrate ordered the local militia to move into the crowd, causing panic and death. 11 died and many were injured; the arrest of many radical leaders ensued.

Six Acts

December 1819

(1) forbade large unauthorized, public meetings, (2) raised the fines for seditious libel, (3) speeded up the trials of political agitators, (4) increased newspaper taxes, (5) prohibited the training of armed groups, and (6) allowed local officials to search homes. It attempted to prevent radical leaders from agitating and the give authorities new powers.

Final Act


German Confederation issued the Final Act, limited the subjects that the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden could discuss. Also asserted the right of the monarchs to resist demands of constitutionalists.

Spanish Rebellions


Army officers who were sent to suppress revolution in Latin America rebelled. In July revolution in Naples, where the king of Two Sicilies accepted a constitution.

Protocol of Trappau


Asserted that stable governments might intervene to restore order in revolutionary countries

Ferdinand VII accept liberal constitution


The conservative Mexicans feared the new liberal monarchy would attempt to impose liberal reforms on Mexico. They rallied behind a former royalist general, Augustin de Iturbide

Congress of Laibach

January 1821

Mexican independence


Augustin de Iturbide declared Mexico independent of Spain and declared himself emperor.

Post war congress


Final post war congress took place at Verona and its primary purpose was to resolve the situation in Spain.

Brazilian independence


Dom Pedro embraced the cause of Brazilian independence against the recolonizing effort of Portugal he became emperor of an independent Brazil.

American Monroe Doctrine

Prohibited further colonization of and by European powers in the Americas.

France in Spain

1823 - 1827

French army suppressed the Spanish revolution and remained in Spain until 1827

Charles X

1824 - 1830

succeeded his brother Louis XVIII. His desire to restore France to a Pre-1789 world led to the Revolution of 1830 and the ascent of Louis Philippe.

Battle of Ayacucho

December 9, 1824

The liberating army crushed the main Spanish royalist forces. The battle marked the end of Spain's effort to retain its South American empire.

Nicholas I reign

1825 - 1855

Russian Tsar that succeeded Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.

Decembrist Revolt


Revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I. Became the first Russian rebellion in which the instigators had specific political goals

Treaty of London


Demanded Turkish recognition of Greek independence and sent a joint fleet to support the Greek revolt.

Treaty of Adrianople

Russian troops sent to Ottoman holdings in Romania ultimately gaining control of that territory and also stipulated the Turks would allow Britain, France, and Russia to decide the future of Greece.

Ireland under direct rule of England


England brought Ireland under direct rule abolishing the separate Irish Parliament and allowing the Irish to elect members to British Parliament. Irish nationalist wanted independence.

Serbian independence


The Ottoman sultan formally granted independence to Serbia.

Second Treaty of London


Declared Greece an independent kingdom

Represson in Poland


Insurrection of soldiers and students broke out in Warsaw. They deposed Nicholas as king of Poland.

French Revolution


Charles X, ruling in a constitutional monarchy, wanted to return to an absolute monarchy, a desire which prompted this revolution and the placing of Louis Phillipe on the throne (in const. monarchy)

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (felt his popularity was diminishing)

to recognize Belgium


Disturbances broke out in Brussel. National congress wrote a liberal Belgium constitution issued in 1831. Lord Palmerston, British foreign minister, persuaded representatives of powers as an independent state.

Four Ordinance

July 25, 1830

Staging a royal coup d'etat, restricted freedom of the press, dissolved The Chamber of Deputies, limited the franchise to the wealthiest people in the country, and called for new elections.

The Great Reform Bill in Britain


Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.

Organic Statute

February 1832

Issued by Nicholas declaring Poland to be an integral part of the Russian Empire.

MIlos wants extended borders


Milos pressured Ottoman authorities to extend borders of Serbia.

Codification of Russian law


Considered Nicholas's only significant reform

Serbia protection


Serbia came under the collective protection of the great powers.


Catholic education


The French government placed secondary education under the control of Roman Catholic bishops.

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, . . . Individuals