AP Euro Timeline

Italy

Francesco Pretrarch

1370 - 1374

Considered the "father of humanism," celebrated ancient Rome in his Letters to the Ancient Dead, and Africa.

Humanism

1370 - 1390

The scholarly study of ancient Greek and Latin classics in hopes for a rebirth of ancient norms and traditions

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Time of transition from the medieval to the modern world. Characterized by growing national consensus, centralized government, urban economy.

Chrysoloras

1397 - 1403

Byznatine scholar who introduced Greek scholarship to Italian Humanists. Played an important role in the revival of Platonism.

Donatello

1406 - 1466

Italian renaissance artist.

Florentine Academy:

1439 - 1492

Considered the home of neoplatonism. Translated all of Plato's works into Latin

Cosimo de' Medici

1444 - 1464

Wealthy Florentine, manipulated leadership and keep them loyal to him. Symbolizes despotism.

Treaty of Lodi

1454 - 1482

Peace between Milan, Naples and Florence.

Neoplatonism

1462 - 1520

Popular because of its flattering view of human nature, Neoplatonism was the revival of Greek studies, especially the works of Plato. After the fall of the Byzantine empire, Greeks fled to Florentine and spread the ideas of Plato.

Lorenzo the Magnificent

1469 - 1492

Grandson of Medici, and ruled in totalitarian fashion.

"High Renaissance"

1490 - 1527

Period in the renaissance denoting the apogee of visual arts.

Michael Angelo, Rafael, da Vinci

1490 - 1527

"High Renaissance" artists.
da Vinci: Jack of all trades: inventor, painter, sculptor, mathematician etc.
Rafael: Painter: Made such works as the "School of Athens"
Michelangelo: Known for such works as "David"

League of Venice

1495 - 1498

League formed between Italian city states against the French invasion.

Baldassare Castiglione

1500 - 1529

Book of the Courtier: Practical guide for the nobility, it embodies the highest ideal s of Italian humanism. Demonstrate good manner and high moral character.

Jesuits

1530

Scholars who believed the protestants had disobeyed the church.

Galileo

1584 - 1642

Used the telescope to uncover many of the secrets behind the heavens. Helped in the renaissance

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Series of conflicts fought between all of the central European nations.

End of Unified Italy

1648

Britain

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Series of conflicts between England and France and their various allies for control over the French throne.

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Dynastic Wars for the English Throne

Henry Tudor

1485 - 1509

Last king to win the throne in the battle field. Defeated Richard III. Most famous for apposing the reformation

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Called the “Defender of Faith” by the pope for his stance against reformation even though he was a protestant.

Thomas More

1529 - 1532

Wrote Utopia, a conservative criticism of contemporary society: Depicted a society led by reason and tolerance that overcame social injustices by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to work for their bread.

Reformation Parliament

1529 - 1536

Parliament called forth to advise on what reformations to make to English government and religion.

Mary I

1547 - 1553

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Made reforms most for calvanists.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Her religious compromises led to the establishment of the Anglican church.

Francis Bacon

1581 - 1620

Considered the father of empiricism.

James I

1603 - 1625

Ruled a nation that was unorganized and was facing religious pressures.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Charles I: 1625- 1649

Petition or Right

1628

In return for funds, Charles would have to amend a list of grievances he had made.

Ship Money

1634 - 1636

Taxes that moved inland

Charles and Laud

1637

Tried to put a religious system on Scotland, led to a revolt.

Short Parliament

1640

Charles calls parliament for funds, they refuse.

Long Parliament

1640

Charles calls parliament again due to Scottish revolts.

Cromwell

1649 - 1660

Beats Charles with his New Model Army. Then uses it to make himself the ruler of England.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Established after the fall of Cromwell

James II

1685 - 1688

Alienated parliament, as he was a catholic and against the protestant movement

Glorious Revolution

1688

The birth of Charles II scared the English as they did not want another Catholic. William of Orange was brought in to take the throne.

Bill of Rights

1688

Parliament created a bill that limited the rights of the monarchy.

Toleration Act:

1689

Provided legal tolerance to protestants.

William and Mary

1689 - 1702

Whigs

1710

Torries were with the parliament. Did not want a revival of a strong monarchy.

Torries

1710

Torries wanted a powerful monarchy back

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Enclosure Act

1730

Ended the open field system

Watt

1745 - 1763

Invented the steam engine

Corn Laws

1815

Maintained high taxes on grain

Peterloo Massacre

1819

Ended the reform movement. Local militia massacred.

Catholic Emancipation Act

1829

Ended Anglican monopoly on politics.

Great Reform Bill

1832

The product of the reformation movement

Irish Famine

1845 - 1847

France

Joan of Arc:

1412 - 1431

Led the French through multiple victories in the 100 Years War.

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Created a strong French economy, using taxes like the talle, and gabille.

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

Agressive action led to the doubling of France nation size. Predecessors would prove to be ineffective at forming a strong centralized government.

Charles VIII

1483 - 1498

Led an invasion of much of the Italian peninsula. Reign fell short from an accidental death.

Louis XII

1498 - 1515

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Initiated the French Renaissance. Fought through the Italian wars, maintaining his nation.

Henry II of France

1547 - 1559

Prince of Conde

1557 - 1570

Was the Bourbon House.

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Reigned during a week monarchy. Guises, Bourbons, and Chatillions fought for the king's favor.
Guises won.

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Edict of Saint-Germain

1562 - 1564

Decree of tolerance by Medici. Provided limited tolerance to French protestantism, especially to the huguenots.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 - 1573

3000 hughenots massacred by Charles I as part of the counter reformation against the protestants.

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Attempted to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre, but was assassinated.

Duke of Sully

1575 - 1610

Right hand man of Henry of Navarre. French minister and staunch huguenot, he helped create a stable French Economy.

Henry IV of Navarre

1589 - 1610

Before, was the leader of the protestants. Ruled as a politique.

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1600

Gave the Calvinist protestants of France (huguenots) many rights.

Marie de Medici

1600 - 1610

Queen of France with King Henry.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Skillfully led France in time of transition between monarchies.

Treaty of Fontainebleau

1631

Created a treaty between France and Bavaria. Made possible by Medici.

Mazarin

1642 - 1661

Like Richelieu, Mazarin was not a Monarch, but he was in the position to make legislative changes in France that allowed for unification and prosperity.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

1665 - 1683

Finance Minister, like Mazarin and others, helped in the centralization and prosperity of France. (reorganized taxes, established canals, etc.)

War of Devolution

1667 - 1668

French Armies overcame the Habsburg-controlled Spanish-Netherlands

Versailles

1682 - 1789

Central power house of France. Where the monarchy and all his political satellites lived.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

Louis revoked the EofN, taking away the powers of the Huguenots, and banning them from office.

9 Years War

1688 - 1697

War between France and a grand alliance of European allies.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Fought between several European nations and France and Spain, from fear of France and Spain joining under the Bourbon monarch.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Rousseau

1722 - 1778

Advocated the freedom of children. That they had to be free and explore life on their own.

Duke of Orleans

1747 - 1793

Came under pressure to concede to parlements, which was a controversial law as it tailored to aristocratic personel.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Abbe Sieyes

1768 - 1836

Post the famous question: What is the third estate?

National Assembly

1789

The third estate refused to sit as a separate order as the king wanted. They invited the other estates to join them in the National Assembly, which the second estate did by a narrow vote.

Tennis Court Oath

1789

Having been locked out, the National assemble went to a tennis court where they vowed to sit until a constitution had been created

Jacobins

1789 - 1795

Political club that pressed for a republic and favored the most radical enlightenment thoughts.
o Passes legislation ordering emigres to return or else they would lose their property and for clergy to support the CCC

Girondists

1789 - 1795

Group of Jacobins in the legislative assembly, who assumed leadership and sought to fight against counter revolutionaries.

o Favored war

Great Fear

1789

Instigated by anti-revolutionary motives.

August 4, 1789

1789

The aristocracy in the National Assembly, seeing the disorder in the country side, recanted their feudal rights, dues, and tithes.

Sans-culottes

1789 - 1794

Got its name because they wore clothing not like aristocracy. Shop keepers, artisans, wage earners
o Called for price control that would help economically, resented social inequality, was strongly republican, and believed in a minimalized government

Bastille

1789

Louis XVI, seeing that the National Assembly (National Constituent Assembly) was gaining too much power attempted to undermine it, and organized troops in Paris. ON July 14th, a group of 800 normal civilians marched to the Bastille in search of Weapons. Bastille Was a symbol of power as it used to hold political prisoners.

Constitution of 1791

1791

Established a constitutional monarchy with a unicameral legislation
o Gave the monarch a veto that could delay but not stop legislation
o Active citizens: Paying annual taxes worth three days of local labor wages could vote
Only around 500 k could vote

Declaration of Pillnitz

1791

Government had established a constitutional monarchy, but France was in a state of internal and external turmoil: Louis was reluctant, aristocrats wanted to overthrow, peasants resisted changes for it affected the church, women wanted larger roles.

September Massacres

1792

The Paris Commune executed 1200 people who the people thought were counter revolutionaries, but were mostly commoners.
o Then demanded a democratic assembly with universal male suffrage, and a republic

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

1793

NCA issued the declaration as a statement of broad principles. All men are born and remain free and equal and the government exists to protect liberty, property, security and resistance from oppression
o Innocence would be assumed until proven guilty
o Taxation done equally
o Applied only to men

Concordat of 1801

1801

Stated that clergy who would not take an oath to the state had to resign. The replacements would receive spiritual investiture from the pope, but they were elected and paid by the state.

Civil Code of 1804

1804

Napoleonic Code: safeguarded all forms of property and overthrew all privileges based off of birth. A basis of merit replaced the purchase of offices.

Napoleon Bonaparte

1804 - 1815

Fiery Jacobin, led the army that staged a coup d’etat against the French Monarchy.

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Battle with Britain. Horatio destroyed the French Navy.

July Revolution

1830

Ended the reign of the Burboun monarchy

Spain

Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros

1456 - 1517

Spanish Cardinal and statesman. Religious reformer.

Isabella I

1474 - 1504

Ferdinant II

1479 - 1516

Ferdinand and Isabella

1500 - 1516

Joining of Isabella and Ferdinand, causing a centralization of Spain

Phillip II

1556 - 1598

End of Spain

1721

At the time of the creation of Russia

Holy Roman Empire

Golden Bull of 1356

1356 - 1390

Decree that fixed the constitutional structure of the HRE

Johann Gutenberg:

1418 - 1468

Invented the Printing press

Maximilian I

1446 - 1519

Erasmus

1470 - 1536

Prince of the Humanists: Called for educational and religious reform. Stressed humble piety and Christian Practice.

95 Thesis

1517

Written by Martin Luthor. Was against the church sale of indulgences.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Holy Roman Emperor, mostly devoted his time stopping the French invasion of Italy. Also known for apposing the protestant reformation

Diet of Worms.

1521

Martin Luthor had confront the diet of worms, a religious court that would assess his case agains the church.

Edict of Worms

1521

Finally allowed religious sovereignty

Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

Peasants, attracted by Luthors beliefs, staged a revolt for reform. Martin Luther said he was against it.

Peace of Augsburg

1552

Reinstated Protestant leaders. Guarantees religious freedom.

Brah and Kepler

1570 - 1580

Scientists who helped in the renaissance.

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

1/3 of the German population was killed. Reasserted the Treaty of Augsburg.

Leonard I

1658 - 1705

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Unrepresented

Vellum

1340 - 1400

Before paper, expensive fabric from animal skin was used.

Netherlands

Modern Devotion>>>>>

1300 - 1450

AKA Brothers of the Common Life: Source of humanists, protestant, and catholic reform movements in the 16th century.

Duke of Alba

1532 - 1540

Led a council to vigorously stop any opposition

Margaret of Parma

1559 - 1567

Phillip II returned to France, leaving his half-sister to rule the Netherlands.

Pacification of Ghent

1576

Alliance of Habsburg Netherlands agains the Spanish invasion

William III

1672 - 1702

Liberum Veto

1700

Start of Poland. Completely ineffective

Russia

Peter I and Ivan V

1682 - 1696

Peters brother was very sick, so Ivan became a co-ruler with him.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Completely reformed Russia. Conscripted a massive army, established the Swedish Colleges, and balanced the powers of the monarchy.

Aleksei

1690 - 1718

Peter the Greats son. Was involved in numerous plots against his father.

Petersburg

1703

Peter creates the city of Petersburg, which is composed of Western technology. Symbol of a new Russia

Peace of Nystad

1721

Established Russia's warm water ports.

Catherine II the Great

1762 - 1796

Sided with the nobles. Learned to rule from the success of Elizabeth

Boyars

1770 - 1780

Russian Noblility

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

In the congress of Vienna demanded all of Poland, and nearly caused a war over it

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

Berlin Decrees

1804

Napoleon bans British imports into Germany.

Invasion of Russia

1810 - 1815

Napoleon began to march into Russia, but the scorched earth policy, and cold Russian winter defeated his army

Talleyrand

1815

Alexander wanted all of Poland. TO make him settle for less, the other three nation staged a fake alliance against him\

Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Nicholas stopped the revolt

Crimean War

1854 - 1855

France and Great Britain declare war on Russia.

Treaty of Paris

1856

Russia had to give back land and proclaim the Black sea as a neutral zone.

Prussia

Frederick WIlliam, The Great Elector

1640 - 1688

Junkers

1660 - 1670

Prussian nobility

Frederick I, Elector

1688 - 1713

Frederick WIlliam I

1713 - 1740

Frederick II the Great

1740 - 1786

Frederick WIlliam III

1797 - 1840

Promised the nation a constitutional monarchy, but instead created his own government.

Frederick WIlliam IV

1840 - 1861

Ignored the assembly, and soon completely dissolved it. Then wrote his own constitution.