Considered the "father of humanism," celebrated ancient Rome in his Letters to the Ancient Dead, and Africa.
The scholarly study of ancient Greek and Latin classics in hopes for a rebirth of ancient norms and traditions
Time of transition from the medieval to the modern world. Characterized by growing national consensus, centralized government, urban economy.
Byznatine scholar who introduced Greek scholarship to Italian Humanists. Played an important role in the revival of Platonism.
Italian renaissance artist.
Considered the home of neoplatonism. Translated all of Plato's works into Latin
Wealthy Florentine, manipulated leadership and keep them loyal to him. Symbolizes despotism.
Peace between Milan, Naples and Florence.
Popular because of its flattering view of human nature, Neoplatonism was the revival of Greek studies, especially the works of Plato. After the fall of the Byzantine empire, Greeks fled to Florentine and spread the ideas of Plato.
Grandson of Medici, and ruled in totalitarian fashion.
Period in the renaissance denoting the apogee of visual arts.
"High Renaissance" artists.
da Vinci: Jack of all trades: inventor, painter, sculptor, mathematician etc.
Rafael: Painter: Made such works as the "School of Athens"
Michelangelo: Known for such works as "David"
League formed between Italian city states against the French invasion.
Book of the Courtier: Practical guide for the nobility, it embodies the highest ideal s of Italian humanism. Demonstrate good manner and high moral character.
Scholars who believed the protestants had disobeyed the church.
Used the telescope to uncover many of the secrets behind the heavens. Helped in the renaissance
Series of conflicts fought between all of the central European nations.
Series of conflicts between England and France and their various allies for control over the French throne.
Dynastic Wars for the English Throne
Last king to win the throne in the battle field. Defeated Richard III. Most famous for apposing the reformation
Called the “Defender of Faith” by the pope for his stance against reformation even though he was a protestant.
Wrote Utopia, a conservative criticism of contemporary society: Depicted a society led by reason and tolerance that overcame social injustices by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to work for their bread.
Parliament called forth to advise on what reformations to make to English government and religion.
Made reforms most for calvanists.
Her religious compromises led to the establishment of the Anglican church.
Considered the father of empiricism.
Ruled a nation that was unorganized and was facing religious pressures.
Charles I: 1625- 1649
In return for funds, Charles would have to amend a list of grievances he had made.
Taxes that moved inland
Tried to put a religious system on Scotland, led to a revolt.
Charles calls parliament for funds, they refuse.
Charles calls parliament again due to Scottish revolts.
Beats Charles with his New Model Army. Then uses it to make himself the ruler of England.
Established after the fall of Cromwell
Alienated parliament, as he was a catholic and against the protestant movement
The birth of Charles II scared the English as they did not want another Catholic. William of Orange was brought in to take the throne.
Parliament created a bill that limited the rights of the monarchy.
Provided legal tolerance to protestants.
Torries were with the parliament. Did not want a revival of a strong monarchy.
Torries wanted a powerful monarchy back
Ended the open field system
Invented the steam engine
Maintained high taxes on grain
Ended the reform movement. Local militia massacred.
Ended Anglican monopoly on politics.
The product of the reformation movement
Led the French through multiple victories in the 100 Years War.
Created a strong French economy, using taxes like the talle, and gabille.
Agressive action led to the doubling of France nation size. Predecessors would prove to be ineffective at forming a strong centralized government.
Led an invasion of much of the Italian peninsula. Reign fell short from an accidental death.
Initiated the French Renaissance. Fought through the Italian wars, maintaining his nation.
Was the Bourbon House.
Reigned during a week monarchy. Guises, Bourbons, and Chatillions fought for the king's favor.
Decree of tolerance by Medici. Provided limited tolerance to French protestantism, especially to the huguenots.
3000 hughenots massacred by Charles I as part of the counter reformation against the protestants.
Attempted to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre, but was assassinated.
Right hand man of Henry of Navarre. French minister and staunch huguenot, he helped create a stable French Economy.
Before, was the leader of the protestants. Ruled as a politique.
Gave the Calvinist protestants of France (huguenots) many rights.
Queen of France with King Henry.
Skillfully led France in time of transition between monarchies.
Created a treaty between France and Bavaria. Made possible by Medici.
Like Richelieu, Mazarin was not a Monarch, but he was in the position to make legislative changes in France that allowed for unification and prosperity.
Finance Minister, like Mazarin and others, helped in the centralization and prosperity of France. (reorganized taxes, established canals, etc.)
French Armies overcame the Habsburg-controlled Spanish-Netherlands
Central power house of France. Where the monarchy and all his political satellites lived.
Louis revoked the EofN, taking away the powers of the Huguenots, and banning them from office.
War between France and a grand alliance of European allies.
Fought between several European nations and France and Spain, from fear of France and Spain joining under the Bourbon monarch.
Advocated the freedom of children. That they had to be free and explore life on their own.
Came under pressure to concede to parlements, which was a controversial law as it tailored to aristocratic personel.
Post the famous question: What is the third estate?
The third estate refused to sit as a separate order as the king wanted. They invited the other estates to join them in the National Assembly, which the second estate did by a narrow vote.
Having been locked out, the National assemble went to a tennis court where they vowed to sit until a constitution had been created
Political club that pressed for a republic and favored the most radical enlightenment thoughts.
o Passes legislation ordering emigres to return or else they would lose their property and for clergy to support the CCC
Group of Jacobins in the legislative assembly, who assumed leadership and sought to fight against counter revolutionaries.
o Favored war
Instigated by anti-revolutionary motives.
The aristocracy in the National Assembly, seeing the disorder in the country side, recanted their feudal rights, dues, and tithes.
Got its name because they wore clothing not like aristocracy. Shop keepers, artisans, wage earners
o Called for price control that would help economically, resented social inequality, was strongly republican, and believed in a minimalized government
Louis XVI, seeing that the National Assembly (National Constituent Assembly) was gaining too much power attempted to undermine it, and organized troops in Paris. ON July 14th, a group of 800 normal civilians marched to the Bastille in search of Weapons. Bastille Was a symbol of power as it used to hold political prisoners.
Established a constitutional monarchy with a unicameral legislation
o Gave the monarch a veto that could delay but not stop legislation
o Active citizens: Paying annual taxes worth three days of local labor wages could vote
Only around 500 k could vote
Government had established a constitutional monarchy, but France was in a state of internal and external turmoil: Louis was reluctant, aristocrats wanted to overthrow, peasants resisted changes for it affected the church, women wanted larger roles.
The Paris Commune executed 1200 people who the people thought were counter revolutionaries, but were mostly commoners.
o Then demanded a democratic assembly with universal male suffrage, and a republic
NCA issued the declaration as a statement of broad principles. All men are born and remain free and equal and the government exists to protect liberty, property, security and resistance from oppression
o Innocence would be assumed until proven guilty
o Taxation done equally
o Applied only to men
Stated that clergy who would not take an oath to the state had to resign. The replacements would receive spiritual investiture from the pope, but they were elected and paid by the state.
Napoleonic Code: safeguarded all forms of property and overthrew all privileges based off of birth. A basis of merit replaced the purchase of offices.
Fiery Jacobin, led the army that staged a coup d’etat against the French Monarchy.
Battle with Britain. Horatio destroyed the French Navy.
Ended the reign of the Burboun monarchy
Spanish Cardinal and statesman. Religious reformer.
Joining of Isabella and Ferdinand, causing a centralization of Spain
At the time of the creation of Russia
Decree that fixed the constitutional structure of the HRE
Invented the Printing press
Prince of the Humanists: Called for educational and religious reform. Stressed humble piety and Christian Practice.
Written by Martin Luthor. Was against the church sale of indulgences.
Holy Roman Emperor, mostly devoted his time stopping the French invasion of Italy. Also known for apposing the protestant reformation
Martin Luthor had confront the diet of worms, a religious court that would assess his case agains the church.
Finally allowed religious sovereignty
Peasants, attracted by Luthors beliefs, staged a revolt for reform. Martin Luther said he was against it.
Reinstated Protestant leaders. Guarantees religious freedom.
Scientists who helped in the renaissance.
1/3 of the German population was killed. Reasserted the Treaty of Augsburg.
Before paper, expensive fabric from animal skin was used.
AKA Brothers of the Common Life: Source of humanists, protestant, and catholic reform movements in the 16th century.
Led a council to vigorously stop any opposition
Phillip II returned to France, leaving his half-sister to rule the Netherlands.
Alliance of Habsburg Netherlands agains the Spanish invasion
Start of Poland. Completely ineffective
Peters brother was very sick, so Ivan became a co-ruler with him.
Completely reformed Russia. Conscripted a massive army, established the Swedish Colleges, and balanced the powers of the monarchy.
Peter the Greats son. Was involved in numerous plots against his father.
Peter creates the city of Petersburg, which is composed of Western technology. Symbol of a new Russia
Established Russia's warm water ports.
Sided with the nobles. Learned to rule from the success of Elizabeth
In the congress of Vienna demanded all of Poland, and nearly caused a war over it
Napoleon bans British imports into Germany.
Napoleon began to march into Russia, but the scorched earth policy, and cold Russian winter defeated his army
Alexander wanted all of Poland. TO make him settle for less, the other three nation staged a fake alliance against him\
Nicholas stopped the revolt
France and Great Britain declare war on Russia.
Russia had to give back land and proclaim the Black sea as a neutral zone.
Promised the nation a constitutional monarchy, but instead created his own government.
Ignored the assembly, and soon completely dissolved it. Then wrote his own constitution.