Considered the "father of humanism," celebrated ancient Rome in his Letters to the Ancient Dead, and Africa.
1370 - 1390
The scholarly study of ancient Greek and Latin classics in hopes for a rebirth of ancient norms and traditions
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
Time of transition from the medieval to the modern world. Characterized by growing national consensus, centralized government, urban economy.
1397 - 1403
Byznatine scholar who introduced Greek scholarship to Italian Humanists. Played an important role in the revival of Platonism.
1406 - 1466
Italian renaissance artist.
1439 - 1492
Considered the home of neoplatonism. Translated all of Plato's works into Latin
Cosimo de' Medici
1444 - 1464
Wealthy Florentine, manipulated leadership and keep them loyal to him. Symbolizes despotism.
Treaty of Lodi
1454 - 1482
Peace between Milan, Naples and Florence.
1462 - 1520
Popular because of its flattering view of human nature, Neoplatonism was the revival of Greek studies, especially the works of Plato. After the fall of the Byzantine empire, Greeks fled to Florentine and spread the ideas of Plato.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
1469 - 1492
Grandson of Medici, and ruled in totalitarian fashion.
1490 - 1527
Period in the renaissance denoting the apogee of visual arts.
Michael Angelo, Rafael, da Vinci
1490 - 1527
"High Renaissance" artists.
da Vinci: Jack of all trades: inventor, painter, sculptor, mathematician etc.
Rafael: Painter: Made such works as the "School of Athens"
Michelangelo: Known for such works as "David"
League of Venice
1495 - 1498
League formed between Italian city states against the French invasion.
1500 - 1529
Book of the Courtier: Practical guide for the nobility, it embodies the highest ideal s of Italian humanism. Demonstrate good manner and high moral character.
Scholars who believed the protestants had disobeyed the church.
1584 - 1642
Used the telescope to uncover many of the secrets behind the heavens. Helped in the renaissance
30 Years War
1618 - 1648
Series of conflicts fought between all of the central European nations.
End of Unified Italy
Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
Series of conflicts between England and France and their various allies for control over the French throne.
War of the Roses
1455 - 1485
Dynastic Wars for the English Throne
1485 - 1509
Last king to win the throne in the battle field. Defeated Richard III. Most famous for apposing the reformation
1509 - 1547
Called the “Defender of Faith” by the pope for his stance against reformation even though he was a protestant.
1529 - 1536
Parliament called forth to advise on what reformations to make to English government and religion.
1529 - 1532
Wrote Utopia, a conservative criticism of contemporary society: Depicted a society led by reason and tolerance that overcame social injustices by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to work for their bread.
1547 - 1553
Made reforms most for calvanists.
1547 - 1553
1558 - 1603
Her religious compromises led to the establishment of the Anglican church.
1581 - 1620
Considered the father of empiricism.
1603 - 1625
Ruled a nation that was unorganized and was facing religious pressures.
1625 - 1649
Charles I: 1625- 1649
Petition or Right
In return for funds, Charles would have to amend a list of grievances he had made.
1634 - 1636
Taxes that moved inland
Charles and Laud
Tried to put a religious system on Scotland, led to a revolt.
Charles calls parliament again due to Scottish revolts.
Charles calls parliament for funds, they refuse.
1649 - 1660
Beats Charles with his New Model Army. Then uses it to make himself the ruler of England.
1660 - 1685
Established after the fall of Cromwell
1685 - 1688
Alienated parliament, as he was a catholic and against the protestant movement
Bill of Rights
Parliament created a bill that limited the rights of the monarchy.
The birth of Charles II scared the English as they did not want another Catholic. William of Orange was brought in to take the throne.
Provided legal tolerance to protestants.
William and Mary
1689 - 1702
Torries wanted a powerful monarchy back
Torries were with the parliament. Did not want a revival of a strong monarchy.
1721 - 1742
Ended the open field system
1745 - 1763
Invented the steam engine
Maintained high taxes on grain
Ended the reform movement. Local militia massacred.
Catholic Emancipation Act
Ended Anglican monopoly on politics.
Great Reform Bill
The product of the reformation movement
1845 - 1847
Joan of Arc:
1412 - 1431
Led the French through multiple victories in the 100 Years War.
1422 - 1461
Created a strong French economy, using taxes like the talle, and gabille.
1461 - 1483
Agressive action led to the doubling of France nation size. Predecessors would prove to be ineffective at forming a strong centralized government.
1483 - 1498
Led an invasion of much of the Italian peninsula. Reign fell short from an accidental death.
1498 - 1515
1515 - 1547
Initiated the French Renaissance. Fought through the Italian wars, maintaining his nation.
Henry II of France
1547 - 1559
Prince of Conde
1557 - 1570
Was the Bourbon House.
1559 - 1560
Reigned during a week monarchy. Guises, Bourbons, and Chatillions fought for the king's favor.
1560 - 1574
Edict of Saint-Germain
1562 - 1564
Decree of tolerance by Medici. Provided limited tolerance to French protestantism, especially to the huguenots.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572 - 1573
3000 hughenots massacred by Charles I as part of the counter reformation against the protestants.
1574 - 1589
Attempted to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre, but was assassinated.
Duke of Sully
1575 - 1610
Right hand man of Henry of Navarre. French minister and staunch huguenot, he helped create a stable French Economy.
Henry IV of Navarre
1589 - 1610
Before, was the leader of the protestants. Ruled as a politique.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - 1600
Gave the Calvinist protestants of France (huguenots) many rights.
Marie de Medici
1600 - 1610
Queen of France with King Henry.
1610 - 1643
1624 - 1642
Skillfully led France in time of transition between monarchies.
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Created a treaty between France and Bavaria. Made possible by Medici.
1642 - 1661
Like Richelieu, Mazarin was not a Monarch, but he was in the position to make legislative changes in France that allowed for unification and prosperity.
1643 - 1715
1665 - 1683
Finance Minister, like Mazarin and others, helped in the centralization and prosperity of France. (reorganized taxes, established canals, etc.)
War of Devolution
1667 - 1668
French Armies overcame the Habsburg-controlled Spanish-Netherlands
1682 - 1789
Central power house of France. Where the monarchy and all his political satellites lived.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis revoked the EofN, taking away the powers of the Huguenots, and banning them from office.
9 Years War
1688 - 1697
War between France and a grand alliance of European allies.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Fought between several European nations and France and Spain, from fear of France and Spain joining under the Bourbon monarch.
1715 - 1774
1722 - 1778
Advocated the freedom of children. That they had to be free and explore life on their own.
Duke of Orleans
1747 - 1793
Came under pressure to concede to parlements, which was a controversial law as it tailored to aristocratic personel.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
1768 - 1836
Post the famous question: What is the third estate?
August 4, 1789
The aristocracy in the National Assembly, seeing the disorder in the country side, recanted their feudal rights, dues, and tithes.
Louis XVI, seeing that the National Assembly (National Constituent Assembly) was gaining too much power attempted to undermine it, and organized troops in Paris. ON July 14th, a group of 800 normal civilians marched to the Bastille in search of Weapons. Bastille Was a symbol of power as it used to hold political prisoners.
1789 - 1795
Group of Jacobins in the legislative assembly, who assumed leadership and sought to fight against counter revolutionaries.
o Favored war
Instigated by anti-revolutionary motives.
1789 - 1795
Political club that pressed for a republic and favored the most radical enlightenment thoughts.
o Passes legislation ordering emigres to return or else they would lose their property and for clergy to support the CCC
The third estate refused to sit as a separate order as the king wanted. They invited the other estates to join them in the National Assembly, which the second estate did by a narrow vote.
1789 - 1794
Got its name because they wore clothing not like aristocracy. Shop keepers, artisans, wage earners
o Called for price control that would help economically, resented social inequality, was strongly republican, and believed in a minimalized government
Tennis Court Oath
Having been locked out, the National assemble went to a tennis court where they vowed to sit until a constitution had been created
Constitution of 1791
Established a constitutional monarchy with a unicameral legislation
o Gave the monarch a veto that could delay but not stop legislation
o Active citizens: Paying annual taxes worth three days of local labor wages could vote
Only around 500 k could vote
Declaration of Pillnitz
Government had established a constitutional monarchy, but France was in a state of internal and external turmoil: Louis was reluctant, aristocrats wanted to overthrow, peasants resisted changes for it affected the church, women wanted larger roles.
The Paris Commune executed 1200 people who the people thought were counter revolutionaries, but were mostly commoners.
o Then demanded a democratic assembly with universal male suffrage, and a republic
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
NCA issued the declaration as a statement of broad principles. All men are born and remain free and equal and the government exists to protect liberty, property, security and resistance from oppression
o Innocence would be assumed until proven guilty
o Taxation done equally
o Applied only to men
Concordat of 1801
Stated that clergy who would not take an oath to the state had to resign. The replacements would receive spiritual investiture from the pope, but they were elected and paid by the state.
Civil Code of 1804
Napoleonic Code: safeguarded all forms of property and overthrew all privileges based off of birth. A basis of merit replaced the purchase of offices.
1804 - 1815
Fiery Jacobin, led the army that staged a coup d’etat against the French Monarchy.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle with Britain. Horatio destroyed the French Navy.
Ended the reign of the Burboun monarchy
Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros
1456 - 1517
Spanish Cardinal and statesman. Religious reformer.
1474 - 1504
1479 - 1516
Ferdinand and Isabella
1500 - 1516
Joining of Isabella and Ferdinand, causing a centralization of Spain
1556 - 1598
End of Spain
At the time of the creation of Russia
Holy Roman Empire
Golden Bull of 1356
1356 - 1390
Decree that fixed the constitutional structure of the HRE
1418 - 1468
Invented the Printing press
1446 - 1519
1470 - 1536
Prince of the Humanists: Called for educational and religious reform. Stressed humble piety and Christian Practice.
Written by Martin Luthor. Was against the church sale of indulgences.
1519 - 1556
Holy Roman Emperor, mostly devoted his time stopping the French invasion of Italy. Also known for apposing the protestant reformation
Diet of Worms.
Martin Luthor had confront the diet of worms, a religious court that would assess his case agains the church.
Edict of Worms
Finally allowed religious sovereignty
1524 - 1525
Peasants, attracted by Luthors beliefs, staged a revolt for reform. Martin Luther said he was against it.
Peace of Augsburg
Reinstated Protestant leaders. Guarantees religious freedom.
Brah and Kepler
1570 - 1580
Scientists who helped in the renaissance.
Treaty of Westphalia
1/3 of the German population was killed. Reasserted the Treaty of Augsburg.
1658 - 1705
1711 - 1740
1340 - 1400
Before paper, expensive fabric from animal skin was used.
1300 - 1450
AKA Brothers of the Common Life: Source of humanists, protestant, and catholic reform movements in the 16th century.
Duke of Alba
1532 - 1540
Led a council to vigorously stop any opposition
Margaret of Parma
1559 - 1567
Phillip II returned to France, leaving his half-sister to rule the Netherlands.
Pacification of Ghent
Alliance of Habsburg Netherlands agains the Spanish invasion
1672 - 1702
Start of Poland. Completely ineffective
Peter I and Ivan V
1682 - 1696
Peters brother was very sick, so Ivan became a co-ruler with him.
Peter the Great
1682 - 1725
Completely reformed Russia. Conscripted a massive army, established the Swedish Colleges, and balanced the powers of the monarchy.
1690 - 1718
Peter the Greats son. Was involved in numerous plots against his father.
Peter creates the city of Petersburg, which is composed of Western technology. Symbol of a new Russia
Peace of Nystad
Established Russia's warm water ports.
Catherine II the Great
1762 - 1796
Sided with the nobles. Learned to rule from the success of Elizabeth
1770 - 1780
1801 - 1825
In the congress of Vienna demanded all of Poland, and nearly caused a war over it
1801 - 1825
Napoleon bans British imports into Germany.
Invasion of Russia
1810 - 1815
Napoleon began to march into Russia, but the scorched earth policy, and cold Russian winter defeated his army
Alexander wanted all of Poland. TO make him settle for less, the other three nation staged a fake alliance against him\
Nicholas stopped the revolt
1825 - 1855
1854 - 1855
France and Great Britain declare war on Russia.
Treaty of Paris
Russia had to give back land and proclaim the Black sea as a neutral zone.
Frederick WIlliam, The Great Elector
1640 - 1688
1660 - 1670
Frederick I, Elector
1688 - 1713
Frederick WIlliam I
1713 - 1740
Frederick II the Great
1740 - 1786
Frederick WIlliam III
1797 - 1840
Promised the nation a constitutional monarchy, but instead created his own government.
Frederick WIlliam IV
1840 - 1861
Ignored the assembly, and soon completely dissolved it. Then wrote his own constitution.