Gilded Age Timeline

1862-1908

Presidents

Grant

1869 - 1877

Hayes

1877 - 1881

Ohio Union general: opposed spoils

Arthur

1881 - 1885

took over after Garfield assassinated: spoilsman

Garfield Assassinated

1881

helped to pass Pendleton (in a sort of memorial), succeeded by VP Arthur

Garfield

1881

assassinated: wanted to reduce tariff

Cleveland

1885 - 1889

Harrison

1889 - 1893

Cleveland

1893 - 1897

McKinley

1897 - 1901

assassinated

Acts

Morrill Land Grant Act

1862

built Universities funded by the state

Homestead Act

1862

started by Lincoln in the Civil War, anyone who didn't go against the North could file a claim and get federal land for little or no cost

Bland-Allison Act

1878

requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883

got rid of spoils system (made jobs merit based)

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

stopped trusts and pools to keep prices down

Mississippi Plan

1890

Sherman Silver Purchase Act passed

1890 - 1893

increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month--wanted by populists bc it inflated the economy and reduced their farming debt

Turner's Thesis

1893

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

1894

reduced rates from McKinley tariff

Gold Standard Act

1900

put us on the gold standard

Newlands Reclamation Act

1902

sold parts of rivers and funded irrigation projects

Lawsuits

Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad vs. Illinois

1886

limited States' rights to control interstate commerce: it led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. (ICC)

US vs EC Knight Co.

1895

limited governments power to control businesses (overruled Sherman Antitrust Act)

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896

"separate but equal"

Holden vs. Hardy

1898

miners complain of horrible conditions and ask for regulation to help improve them and court agrees

Cummings v. Board of Education

1899

allowed segregation in schools

Lochner vs. New York

1905

bakery workers want better conditions and more regulation but court ignores

Mueller vs. Oregon

1908

women ask for protection, of course they’re just supposed to be housewives…

Foundings

Transcontinental Railroad Completion

1869

the building of the railroad lead to massive deforestation in the west, but gave the opportunity for shipment of mass produced items and bananas

Knights of Labor Founded

1869 - 1880

first labor union; could not organize itself so it fell apart (even though it was big); rejected Socialism and followed Republicanism

Barbed Wire Invented

1873

best way to keep cows from breaching the fence--also showed how patents existed and inventions became wide spread

National League Founded

1876

baseball! people finally have time to get out of the house since no one wants to be in that overcrowded smelly room

Interstate Commerce Commission created

1877

regulated railroads to ensure fair rates

American Federation of Labor founded

1886

union: separated by racism and sexism

Farmer's Alliances formed

1887

Populists: wanted more government regulation to help aid the little people

Populist convention in Omaha

1892

represent populist ideology

Rural Free Delivery Established

1896

Taylor's Scientific Management

1898

• Advocated factory efficiency on a scientific level: made it hard for workers to be up to snuff
• No more small business: factories got chaching and there’s a rising financial separation

Industrial Workers of the World Founded

1905

The IWW contends that all workers should be united as a class and that the wage system should be abolished.[5] They are known for the Wobbly Shop model of workplace democracy, in which workers elect their managers[6] and other forms of grassroots democracy (self-management) are implemented.

Battles

Panic 1873

1873 - 1879

Nez Perce Surrender

1877

Nez Perce were asked to give up their ancestral land and when they didn't we kicked them out (went against the Treaty of Walla Walla in 1855)

RR Strike

1877

RR cut wages

Haymarket Riot

1886

Chicago: began as a peaceful strike for workers rights until someone threw a bomb at the popo

Battle of Wounded Knee

1890

last battle of American Indian Wars--we chased the Lakota Sioux off their land and those who were too slow were killed (women and children included)

Homestead Strike

1892

btwn AA union and Carnegie Steel: setback for union causes

Panic 1893

1893

Pullman Palace Car Strike

1894

American Railway Union (Eugene Debs) mad about reduced wages in Detroit, court told them to stop and they didnt, President Cleveland told army to stop them and they did. Debs arrested and ARU dissolved

Coxey's Army

1895

tried to get the government to employ the unemployed to build roads