Ch 20 AP Euro (1815- 1832)

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Prince Metternich

1773 - 1859

-Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention Leader of the Congress of Vienna
-saw liberalism and nationalism as threats

The Charter

1814
  • provided for a hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature French monarchy restored- Bourbons are in charge after the Napoleonic Era.

Rise of Nationalism and Liberalism.

1814

Ireland, Germans, Italy, Poland, Eastern and Southeastern Europe experience Nationalistic pressure due to other states controlling them.

Corn Law

1815

-This raised the prices of grains so the aristocrats receive more profit.

Coercion acts

1817

It suspended habes corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings like the one at Spa Fields. This was not liked by the radicals.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

it was where the first congress system happened.
-Quadruple Alliance memmbers decide France should be freed of occupation;
- France joins Quadruple alliance & becomes Quintuple Alliance; -Castleragh rejects Alexander's proposal that great powers support exisisting governments in Europe

Execution of Karl Sand

March, 1819

He was a student member of Burschenshaften who was seen as a nationalist martyr.

Carlsbad Decrees

July, 1819

It dissolved the Burschenschaften (student clubs who discussed about a unified German state) .

Great Britian passes six acts

December, 1819

1) forbade large unauthorized public meetings
2) raised the fines for seditious libel
3) speed up the trials of political agitators
4) increased newspaper taxes
5) prohibited the training of armed groups
6) allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed countries

Spanish Revolution

January, 1820

-Spanish revolution was a revolution against King Bourbon Ferdinand VII of Spain. When he had been put into power, he pledged to abide by the Cortes, but once he gained power, he abolished the constitution and ruled alone.
-A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals.

Congress of Troppau

October, 1820

It was a meeting where leaders agreed to provide military intervention to support governments against internal revolution.

Congress of Laibach

January, 1821

In it, the congress was to make a decision whether to allow Austria to intervene in Italy. Shortly after, Austrian troops marched into naples and restored the king of the two sicilies to a nonconstitutional government.

Greek Revolution

February, 1821

It was a rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

France helps crush Spanish Revolution

1823

-A civil war in Spain fought between royalists and liberals in which France intervened, trying to restore the Bourbon Ferdinand VII to the throne in Spain.

Charles X

1824

-becomes king of France cuz Louis XVII dies.
He lowered the interest rate on government bonds.
He supported the Roman Catholic Church.
He restored the rule of primogeniture.

Decembrist Revolt in Russia

1825

It was the first time for Russians demanding a constitutional gov’t and the abolition of serfdom.

Repeal of restrictions against British Protestant nonconformists

1828

Instead of accepting the new Chamber of Deputies, the king and his ministers decided to attempt a royalist seizure of power.

Serbia is granted indepedence

1829

-granted by Ottoman sultan

Catholic Emancipation act

1829

-allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office
- started by O'Connell
-passed in Great Britian

July Revolution

July, 1830

It was the overthrow of Charles X.
It was the response to 4 ordinances which angered the Liberals and the poor people.

Four Ordainces

July, 1830

Charles X last act after his failed election.
He censored the press,
changed the electoral law to favor his own candidates,
dissolved the newly elected Chamber of deputies, and
ordered new elections

Louis Philippe becomes king

August, 1830

He was favored by the liberals. He included a new constitution which included the right of the people, no press censorship, religious tolerance.
But he provided no help for the poor.

Belgian Revolution

August 25, 1830

Belgium gains independence.

Polish revolution

November, 1830

Great Reform Bill

1832

It reformed British House of Commons and expanded electorate by fifty percent to include wider variety of propertied classes.
It laid groundwork for further reforms in British constitution.
It was instituted by William IV to create enough new peers to give a third reform bill a majority in the House of the Lords.

Peterloo Massarce

1832

It was a gathering in Manchester, England to discuss political reform and spread new ideas which was attacked by the government troops.