The Great War

The Great War lasted from June, 1914, when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated to January 1919, when the Paris Peace Conference was created.

The Great War

Assassination of Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

A Serbian Terrorist group assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. This served as the action that sparked the Great War.

Austria Hungary vs. Serbia

July 28, 1914

Because of Archduke Franz Ferdinand's assassination, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia. This would eventually cause Russia to mobilize since Russia was Serbia's ally.

Germany vs. Russia

August 1, 1914

Germany declared war on Russia for mobilizing to attack Austria Hungary. This would cause the war to get much larger than it was before.

Germany vs. France

August 3, 1914

Germany declared war to carry out the Schlieffen Plan. This would cause the war to become much larger and would put the odds against Germany since it would make it a two front war.

Germany Crosses Belgium

August 4, 1914

To initiate the Schlieffen plan, Germany passed through Belgium without permission. This causes Great Britain, Belgium's ally, to join the war.

Great Britain vs. Germany

August 4, 1914

Great Britain declared war on Germany when Germany passed through Belgium without permission. This put the odds against Germany even more.

First Battle of the Marne

September 6, 1914 - September 10, 1914

The First Battle of the Marne was the allied offensive attempt at stopping the Germans from reaching Paris and completing the Schlieffen Plan. The First Battle of the Marne was a huge success since the allied forces were able to push the Germans all the way back to the Aisne river, halting the Schlieffen Plan. However, this started the trench warfare since Germany was able to dig defensive trenches at the river. This would ultimately start the stalemate, lengthening the war a ton.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

February 4, 1915

Germany declared its first policy of Unrestricted Submarine warfare against the allied powers in order to sink any ships that might have been carrying war supplies. The Germans made a blockade in British waters in order to carry out this plan. This ended up causing many ships to be sunk, bringing other nations into the war.

The Gallipoli Front

February 19, 1915 - January 9, 1916

The Gallipoli front was an offensive made by Great Britain against Turkey to break the stalemate and obtain a supply line to Russia. Great Britain attacked the Dardanelle straits, which led into the Black Sea. The attack was a failure; the Turks had won and many troops were killed. Great Britain ended the attack by evacuating all of their troops.

Second Battle of Ypres

April 22, 1915 - May 25, 1915

The Second Battle of Ypres was a German offensive against France in hopes to break the stalemate and divert Allied attention from the Western Front. It is famous for including the first use of chlorine gas by the Germans.The chlorine gas was so effective that Germany was easily able to take Ypres and ended up destroying it.

Lusitania Sinking

May 7, 1915

German sunk the RMS Lusitania to pursue its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. This had negative consequences for Germany since many Americans were killed in the sinking. This would eventually cause America to join the war.

Italy vs. Austria Hungary

May 23, 1915

Italy ignored its alliance and mutual defense contract with Austria Hungary and declared war in 1915. This came from the Treaty of London, where the Allied Powers offered Italy more land to fight on their side. This would add more power to the allies, ultimately putting Germany at a disadvantage.

The 12 Battles of Isonzo

June 23, 1915 - November 10, 1917

The Battles of Isonzo were Italy's attempts at defeating Austria Hungary and breaking the stalemate. There were 12 Battle of Isonzo, all being stalemates with little to no movement. However, when Germany stepped in to help Austria Hungary, the Central Powers defeated Italy tremendously. Overall, the Battles of Isonzo were failed attempts at breaking the stalemate and taking Austria Hungary for Italy. Italy eventually regained a lot of its land, but it suffered extremely substantial losses.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Withdrawn

September 18, 1915

In an attempt to keep the United States out of the war, Germany implemented a "cruiser" attack system where the U-boats would surface before attacking. This ended Unrestricted Submarine Warfare temporarily, but allowed for more goods to get into Great Britain. It would eventually come back to limit British trade.

Battle of Verdun

February 21, 1916 - December 18, 1916

The Battle of Verdun was a German attempt to break the stalemate on the Western Front. The Germans thought that a massive central attack against the French at Verdun would remove the French from the Great War, making it easy to defeat the British. Then, the Russians would drop out because they couldn't handle Germany alone, so Germany would win. It ended up failing when the Battle of the Somme made German troops leave Verdun. The stalemate remained.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 2

March 4, 1916

In an attempt to block British imports, Germany implemented Unrestricted Submarine Warfare around the British coast again. However, this would eventually cause the United States to enter the war.

Sussex Sinking

March 24, 1916

Following its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Germany sunk the French passenger ship Sussex for fear that it was carrying war supplies. This continued policy of unrestricted submarine warfare would eventually bring America into the war.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Withdrawn 2

May 4, 1916

Germany retracted its Unrestricted Submarine Warfare policy around Great Britain to keep the United States out of the War. However, the need to block British imports would eventually arise again, and Germany would implement Unrestricted Submarine Warfare again, causing the United States to enter the war.

Battle of Jutland

May 31, 1916 - June 1, 1916

The British intercepted German communications about a naval attack against the British, so they arrived with the whole entire Grand Fleet instead of a small fleet like the Germans expected. Both sides suffered heavy losses, but the German High Seas fleet was permanently damaged more that the British Grand Fleet. After this battle, there were no more major battleship attacks since the German fleet had been wiped out.

Brusilov Offensive

June 4, 1916 - September 20, 1916

The Brusilov Offensive was Russia's sudden attack against Germany on the Easter Front in attempts to distract Germany and Austria Hungary from Verdun and Isonzo. It was extremely successful for the Germans, defeating Austria Hungary badly with a surprise attack and ruining its capabilities as a major military power.

Battle of the Somme

July 1, 1916 - November 18, 1916

The Battle of the Somme was both an attempt by the Allies, mainly the British, to break the stalemate against the Central Powers and an attempt to relieve the French from the Battle of Verdun. The Battle of the Somme was famous for the introduction of new weapons such as tanks. The battle did not break the stalemate, but it did gain 12 kilometers of land for the Allies.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 3

February 1, 1917

After Germany acquired a larger naval fleet capable of patrolling and destroying ships off of the British coast, Unrestricted Submarine Warfare was implemented again to restrict the goods that the British could get. This would cause the United States to enter the war since several ships holding American passengers had sunk and it was possible that more would.

Zimmermann Telegram

February 24, 1917

The Zimmermann Telegram was a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico asking for Mexico to become its ally and attack the United States. Since this was intercepted by the United States, they would soon join the war.

Czar Nicolas II Abdicates

March 15, 1917

Czar Nicolas II Abdicated his throne due to the Russian Revolution. This would ultimately cause Russia to leave the war, giving the Central Powers the advantage of having a single front war.

First Battle of Gaza

March 26, 1917 - March 27, 1917

The First Battle of Gaza was Great Britain's attempt at taking the Gaza Strip from the Turks since they had already taken the Sinai Peninsula. This was a relatively small defeat for Great Britain, but they continued attempts at taking Gaza in the other Battles of Gaza.

United States vs. Germany

April 6, 1917

Because of Germany's threat to the United States with their policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States declared war on Germany. This would eventually damage the Central Powers since they had another nation fighting against them.

Second Battle of the Aisne

April 16, 1917 - May 9, 1917

The Second Battle of the Aisne was launched by the French commanded by Commander in Chief Robert Nivelle, who thought that an offensive on the Western Front, specifically the Aisne River, could bring an Allied victory in two days. The battle was delayed, so the Germans were prepared for the attack. The attack was completely unsuccessful for the French, failing to gain much land let alone win the war. This would eventually start a mutiny among French troops.

The Second Battle of Gaza

April 17, 1917 - April 19, 1917

The Second Battle of Gaza was a continuation of the First Battle, with the ultimate goal of capturing Jerusalem. In the time that an another attack had been held off, the Turks had fortified the line more. This caused the battle to be another failure for Great Britain, who hoped to break the stalemate.

French Mutiny

April 29, 1917 - May 20, 1917

After the failure of the Second Battle of the Aisne, the French soldiers committed mutiny. This ultimately weakened the French military as a whole, but it was brought back to normal once the mutiny was ended.

The Third Battle of Gaza

October 31, 1917 - December 10, 1917

The Third Battle of Gaza was Great Britain's final attempt at taking Jerusalem from the Turks. After a new commander, Commander Allenby, joined the Gaza effort, British forces were able to take Jerusalem in about a month. This did not break the stalemate, but it was a huge success for Great Britain.

United States vs. Austria Hungary

December 7, 1917

The United States declared war on Austria Hungary in an attempt to put down the Central Powers. Austria Hungary was also threatening the Allied Powers on many fronts. This would put the odds against the Central Powers even more than before.

Russia Leaves War

December 22, 1917 - March 3, 1918

Following the revolution in Russia, the abdication of Czar Nicolas II, and the new Communist Government established by Lenin, Russia discussed and finalized peace negotiations with the Central Powers. This ened with the Breast-Litovsk Treaty, finalizing the departure of Russia from World War I. This eventually gives Germany a huge advantage since it suddenly went from fighting a two front war to only a one front war. Germany could now focus on only one front.

German Spring Offensive

March 21, 1918 - July 15, 1918

The German Spring Offensive was a series of attacks against the British line west of the Cambrai, where it was weakest. The offensive was a German attempt to break the stalemate that started out as a huge success. But due to the fast advancements, the supply lines could not resupply the troops. This offensive ended up stopping when the Americans joined the Western Front, stopping the German advancement at the Battle of the Marne. This would eventually be the downfall of Germany, commonly known as its last offensive in World War I since it weakened Germany so much.

Second Battle of the Marne

July 15, 1918 - August 5, 1918

As a last attempt at finishing the German Spring Offensive successfully, Germany decided to make an attack on Flanders in the Battle of the Marne. This ended up being a terrible failure when tons of French, American, and Italian troops joined to push Germany back to where they had begun at the start of the whole Spring Offensive and eventually further than that. This war ended up destroying Germany, making it the last attack that Germany made during World War I. Germany sustained massive losses of ground and men, causing for an armistice and an eventual peace.

Armistice

November 11, 1918 11:00 AM

The Armistice made between the Allied and Central Powers was called on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month to be easy to spread, remember, and to allow for stray troops to stay within terms of the armistice if they accidentally went on fighting without knowledge of the armistice. This ended up being a total disaster when commanders on both sides of the war tried to make a final push to gain ground. This armistice would eventually lead to a peace between the two alliances in the Paris Peace Conference.

Opening of Paris Peace Conference

January 18, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference opened soon after Germany made an Armistice with the Allied Powers. Composed of the Allied powers, the Paris Peace Conference would eventually lead to the Treaty of Versailles, the peace treaty that put an end to the war.