A state founded by Turkish tribes in northwest Anatolia. The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood. The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa.
An important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries in total. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents.
A state located in western Africa that was one of the largest Islamic empires in history.
The Portuguese began the New World slave trade, and others quickly followed. Slaves were considered cargo by the ship owners, to be transported to the Americas as quickly and cheaply as possible. By 1470, Lisbon became the country's most important slave port.
At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire, transforming the Ottoman state into an empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Asia, with the Anatolian reunification, and into Europe.
The first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. Under Sunni Ali's infantry and cavalry many cities were captured and then fortified.
A German monk, priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.
King John II of Portugal appointed him to head an expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa in the hope of finding a trade route to India.
On the evening of August 3, 1492, Columbus began his first voyage with three ships.
Divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa).
One of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
An influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of Calvinism. He broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He completely reconstructed the Ottoman legal system. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer Christian strongholds.
An imperial power in the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were Muslims and direct descendants of Genghis Khan through Chagatai Khan and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent.
A Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
The Council condemned Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints, and issued numerous reform decrees.
the third Mughal Emperor, and of Timurid descent. At the end of his reign, the Mughal empire covered most of northern and central India. He is most appreciated for having a liberal outlook on all faiths and beliefs and during his era, culture and art reached a zenith as compared to his predecessors. Akbar's reign significantly influenced art and culture in the country.
His achievements include improvements to the telescope and astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
His rule was the longest in the Ming dynasty and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty.
the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific.
A feudal Japanese military government. The heads of government were the shoguns. Each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle; and the years of shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period.
A series of wars fought in Central Europe, involving most of its countries. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. Initially, it was fought largely as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of the time.
Known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, he was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers.
the last imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Ming, and followed by the Republic of China.
A series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 which ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
A world war that took place between 1756 and 1763. It involved most of the great powers of the time. The war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain and the Bourbons (in France and Spain), resulting from overlapping interests in their colonial and trade empires.
The First Fleet of British ships at Sydney established the penal colony of New South Wales in 1788.
A slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic. The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state. The revolution was one of the two successful attempts, along with the American Revolution, to achieve permanent independence from a European colonial power for an American state before the 19th century. It is generally considered the most successful slave rebellion ever to have occurred in the Americas and as a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World.
The Slave Trade Act was an Act of Parliament made in the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807. Many supporters thought the Act would end slavery, but that didn't happen until much later.