Group Timeline Project for Child/ Family Policies and Legislation in the US.
CAPTA provides Federal funding to States in
support of prevention, assessment, investigation,
prosecution, and treatment activities and also
provides grants to public agencies and nonprofit
organizations, including Indian Tribes and Tribal
organizations, for demonstration programs and
In 1856, the first rape conviction in California's history reached the state supreme court and involved the rape of a 13 year old child.
In Hell's Kitchen a missionary was determined to rescue Mary Ellen Wilson from one of New York City's worse tenements. In her attempt to rescue this girl, she solicited the help of the founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. With the help of a lawyer they were able to move Mary from her guardians and set in motion events that led to the creation for the NYSPCC in 1875.
This organization was created as the first organization solely dedicated to child protection.
The first juvenile court was established in Chicago which lead to the development of juvenile courts all around the U.S. By 1919 all but 3 states had juvenile courts.
The first federal agency within the U.S. Government to focus exclusively on improving the lives of children and families. Since its creation by President Taft in 1912, the bureau has tackled some of our nation’s most pressing social issues, including infant and maternal death, child labor, orphanages, child health and recreation, delinquency and juvenile courts, family economic security, abused and neglected children, and foster care
The purpose of this act was to reduce maternal and infant mortality rates. It provided federal matching funds for programs such as: health clinics for women and children; visiting nurses to educate and care for pregnant and new mothers; midwife training; and the distribution of nutrition and hygiene information
Federal funding for child welfare services was first authorized under Title V of The Social Security Act of 1935
Title V was amended to require states to provide matching funds to draw down their share of federal child welfare funds. Federal funding was capped for this program and Congress made decisions each year about the funding level.
Louisiana expelled 23,000 children from its welfare program because the parents of these children were not married when the children were born. This prompted the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) to implement the Flemming Rule. This rule declared that states could not simply ignore the needs of children living in unsuitable households but they instead had to put certain steps in place to ensure these children received appropriate services.
Congress expanded the use of Title IV-A, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) to include foster care funding for children who were in AFDC families.
*These children were eligible if a court determined that remaining in the home was contrary to the child's welfare.
*In 1969, participation in the program was made mandatory for all states.
*By the middle of the 1970's, more than 100,000 children were receiving benefits.
This article was published by pediatricial Henry Kempe and his colleagues which shed light on child abuse issues which gained national attention.
These ammendments for the first time identified Child Protective Services as part of child welfare. These ammendments required states to pledge that they would make child welfare services available statewide by July 1, 1975.
The Title V program became Title IV-B, Child Welfare Services, of the Social Security Act.
*The authorized funding level ranged from $55 million in 1968 to $266 million in 1977. Despite this authorization level, the actual funding appropriated never reached a high beyond the $66 million provided in 1980.
Congress passed this program, providing seed money
for the development and operation of experimental, demonstration, and outreach preschool and early intervention programs for handicapped children. This was the federal government’s first major effort in early intervention.
Section 504. of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act is the basic civil rights legislation prohibiting discrimination against persons with “handicapping conditions” in programs that receive federal funds including public schools. The definition of “handicapping condition” is a handicapped student is one who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more life activities (such as working, eating, dressing, breathing). It may also include drug and alcohol addiction, attention deficit
disorder, AIDS, hospitalization due to depression, and other conditions not typically qualifying under special education.
The key Federal legislation addressing child abuse and neglect was originally enacted
on January 31, 1974
Senator James Abourezk (D-SD) held one of the first hearings in Congress to focus on the treatment of Native American children in out-of-home placement, with particular attention on the placement of these children in non-Indian settings.
To assure appropriate education opportunities for children with special needs, Congress passed these amendments which guarantees due process and provision of education in the
least restrictive environment.
Now called the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities.
The1978 Amendment to CAPTA.
The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted into law, establishing requirements for child welfare agencies when serving Native children and families, with the goal of reducing the nimber of Native American Children that were being removed from their homes.
The law created a separate title, Title IV-E Foster Care and Adoption Assistance, in the Social Security Act to specifically fund these two categories of child welfare services. While providing reimbursements for the costs of children in foster care and support for adoptive parents, the law also expanded the number of protections for children in the foster care system. The law based eligibility on whether or not a child came from a family receiving AFDC or if that child came from a family eligible for AFDC.
Believing that it was time to encourage states to expand services to preschool children, infants, and toddlers with handicaps, Congress passed this legislation that set aside money for planning, development, and implementation grants dealing with the preschool populations, allowing states to applyfor grants to provide services to disabled children age birth through 3 years.
The purpose of theses ammendments were to reauthorize and expand the scope of CAPTA legislation; to provide for the study of incidents involving denial of nutrition, medically indicated treatment, care, or appropriate social services to infants at risk with life-threatening congenital impairments; and to facilitate the adoption of such infants.
Under this Act, the Independent Living Program was authorized.
This legislation amended the Education of All Handicapped
Children Act (EHA) to replace the preschool grants program (Part B, Section 619) and create a new early intervention program for infants and toddlers (Part H). Under this law, the term “handicapped children” was replaced with “children with disabilities.” This term now included mentally retarded, hard of
hearing, deaf, speech or language impaired, visually handicapped, severely emotionally disturbed, orthopedically impaired, or other health impaired, or children with specific learning disabilities, who by reason thereof require special education.
The CAPTA law was completely rewritten in the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1988.
Title I made changes to the federal child support enforcement program which increased the number of eligible children's rewards; provided guidelines for establishing the rewards; and strengthened the means by which debts are collected from parents. Title II mandates states to implement "a welfare-to-work training and employment program (JOBS)). Title III provides supportive services for recipients of JOBS and their families such as extending childcare and eligibility for Medicaid for those leaving the AFDC rolls of employment. Title IV mandates inclusion of the AFDC-Unemployed Parents (AFDC-UP) program, which allows states to include two-parent families with children to obtain federally subsidized AFDC benefits if the father was involuntarily unemployed.
Provides foster care and residential care of Infants and young children abandoned in hospitals. It authorizes grants to public and nonprofit private entities for demonstration projects to: prevent the abandonment of infants and young children; identify and address the needs of abandoned infants and young children, particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); assist them, particularly those with AIDS, to reside with their natural families or in foster families, as appropriate; recruit, train, and retain foster families; carry out residential care progams; carry out respite care programs for families and foster families of infants and children with AIDS; and recruit and train health and social services personnel to work with such families and residential programs.
CAPTA was further amended by the Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants Reauthorization Act of 1989.
CAPTA was further amended by the Drug Free School Amendments of 1989.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications, and governmental activities. The ADA also establishes requirements for telecommunications relay services.
This act amends the Public Health Service Act to provide grants to improve the quality and availability of care for individuals and families with HIV disease. This Act provides emergency assistance to localities that are disproportionately affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus epidemic and makes financial assistance available to States and other public or private non-profit entities to provide for the development, organization, coordination, and operation of more effective and cost-efficient systems for the delivery of essential services to individuals and families with HIV disease. Title I deals with the HIV Emergency Relief Grant Program. Title II deals with HIV Care Grants. Title III concerns Early Intervention Services. Title IV gives General Provisions, Reports, and Evaluations.
Reauthorized the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), Parts C through G, through fiscal year 1994, changed
the name to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and made minor changes to Parts B and H. There were also some changes in the definition categories for special education and related services, including new categories of traumatic brain injury,developmental delay, and autism. Also, additional services, such as transition and assistive technology, were added.
A new title III, Certain Preventive Services Regarding Children of Homeless Families or Families at Risk of Homelessness, was added to the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment Act by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act Amendments of 1990
A person who, while engaged in a professional capacity or activity described in subsection (b) ofsection 226 of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 on Federal land or in a federally operated (or contracted) facility, learns of facts that give reason to suspect that a child has suffered an incident of child abuse, as defined in subsection (c) of that section, and fails to make a timely report as required by subsection (a) of that section, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 1 year or both.
This act authorizes appropriations for fiscal years 1992 and 1993 for military activities of the Department of Defense. Title VI, Compensation And Other Personnel Benefits, Part E Sec. 651, stipulates a permanent extension of the program to reimburse members of the Armed Forces for qualifying adoption expenses in the adoption of a child under 18 years of age. Expenses may be reimbursed for an adoption by a single person, an infant adoption, an intercountry adoption and an adoption of a child with special needs. Benefits are paid only after the adoption is final.
CAPTA was amended and reauthorized by the Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, Adoption, and Family Services Act of 1992.
CAPTA was further amended by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Amendments of 1992.
Requires that an "eligible" employee must be granted, in total, up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave during any twelve-month period for any of the following reasons: the birth or adoption of a child or the foster care placement of a child; a leave to care for the employee's spouse, child or parent who has a serious health condition; a serious health condition of the employee that makes the employee unable to perform the functions of their job. To be eligible for coverage under FMLA, an employee must have been employed by the organization for at least 12 months and have worked at least 1,250 hours during the 12-month period immediately preceding the commencement of the leave.
THis act encouraged states to use funds to create a continuum of family-focused services for at-risk children and families. It required states to engage in a comprehensive planning process in which they develop more responsive family support and preservation strategies. It encouraged states to use funds to integrate preventive services into treatment-oriented child welfare systems and to improve service coordination within and across State service agencies. It broadened the definition of ''family'' to include people needing services regardless of family configuration: biological, adoptive, foster, extended, or self-defined. It encouraged services to be provided such as preservation services to include activities designed to assist families in crisis, often where the child is at risk of being placed in out-of-home care because of abuse and/or neglect; support services include preventive activities, typically provided by community-based organizations, designed to improve nurturing of children and strengthen and enhance stability of families.
It also provided grants to the highest court of each state to conduct scourts in handling child welfare cases, and to implement changes deemed necessary as a result of the assessments.
CAPTA was further amended by the Older American Act Technical Amendments of 1993.
This amendment was designed to reauthorize appropriations for fiscal years 1995 through 1998 to carry out the Head Start Act, the Community Services Block Grant Act, and the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Act. The amendments to the Head Start Act address definitions, services, allocation of funds, monitoring and quality assurance, participation, staff qualifications, and goals and priorities for training and technical assistance. The amendments to the Community Services Block Grant Act address community food and nutrition programs, instructional activities for low-income youth, and assistance to the homeless. The amendments to the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Act address emergency funds, targeted assistance, authorized uses of funds, and the Residential Energy Assistance Challenge Option
Congress authorized the Child Welfare Waiver program which was similar to the Court Improvement Program to enable state agencies to test new approaches to delivering and financing child welfare services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services grants these waivers annually to states through its discretionary grants program.
This act prohibited child welfare agencies from delaying or denying, or discrimating when making a foster care adoptive placement decision on the basis of the parent or child's race, color or national origin.
These ammendments repealed the provision that allowed for the routine consideration of race and ethnicity in adoptions.
This Act allowed for a nonrefundable tax credit of up to $5,000 per child for adoption expenses and $6,000 for children with special needs. The Act bars placement agencies that receive Federal funds from denying or delaying adoptions based on race, color, or national origin.
This Act amends the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to improve portability and continuity of health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets; to combat waste, fraud, and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery; to promote the use of medical savings accounts; to improve access to long-term care services and coverage; and to simplify the administration of health insurance.
Also known as the Welfare Reform Act it required work in exchange for time-limited assistance. It contains work requirements, a performance bonus to reward states for moving welfare recipients into jobs, state maintenance of effort requirements, comprehensive child support enforcement, and supports for families moving from welfare to work.
TANF was a block grant program that was created as a replacement for AFDC.
CAPTA was further amended by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Amendments of 1996 which amended title I, replaced the Title II Community-Based Family Resource Centers program with a new Community-Based Family Resource and Support Program, and repealed Title III, Certain Preventive Services Regarding Children of Homeless Families or Families at Risk of Homelessness.
This legislation guarantees a free and appropriate public education for more than 5 million children with disabilities and prohibits states from eliminating educational services to students with disabilities under any circumstances. NASW played a significant role in this legislative victory for children and social workers.
This act responded to the federal Wetterling Act designed to help both law enforcement and the public by increasing the awareness of criminal offenders, particularly sexual offenders.
This policy would exempt certain immigrant children ages 10 or under who are being adopted (or have been adopted) by U.S. citizens from the requirement to receive certain vaccinations before entering the United States. The exemption would be contingent upon the adopting parents signing an affidavit stating that a child will receive the required vaccinations after entering the United States.
The Act made child safety the top priority when it came to child welfare. It established strict time lines for returning children in the child welfare system to their parents as well as time lines for terminating parental rights.
This Act was also known as the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998 (CSPIA). The prupose of this Act was to provide for an alternative penalty procedure for States that fail to meet Federal child support data processing requirements; to reform Federal incentive payments for effective child support performance; and to provide for a more flexible penalty procedure for States that violate interjurisdictional adoption requirements
To amend title 18, United States Code, to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation, and for other purposes.
This Act amended part E of title IV of the Social Security Act to provide States with more funding and greater flexibility in carrying out programs designed to help children make the transition from foster care to self-sufficiency.
The purpose was to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect . This Act authorized the use of Federal law enforcement funds by States to improve the criminal justice system in order to provide timely, accurate, and complete criminal history record information to child welfare agencies, organizations, and programs that are engaged in the assessment of activities related to the protection of children, including protection against child sexual abuse, and placement of children in foster care. It allowed the use of Federal grants by law enforcement to enforce child abuse and neglect laws, including laws protecting against child sexual abuse; to promote programs designed to prevent child abuse and neglect; to establish or support cooperative programs between law enforcement and media organizations to collect, record, retain, and disseminate information useful in the identification and apprehension of suspected criminal offenders. It increased the amount of federally collected funds available to the States for implementation of State Children's Justice Act reforms.
Implemented Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption in the United States.
This Act was established to help courts reduce the backlog of abuse and neglect cases; and to epedite the flow of individual cases through the court system by automating case-tracking and data-collection systems.
This Act amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to allow permit foreign-born children (including adopted children) to acquire citizenship automatically if they had at least one United States citizen parent; the child is under 18 years of age;
the child is a permanent U.S.resident in the legal and physical custody of the United States citizen parent;
and the child was lawfully admitted into the U.S
This Act reduced income tax rates for many taxpayers, it created a new 10% tax bracket for incomes below $34,550, it doubled the child tax credit from $500 to $1,000, eliminated the “marriage penalty”, and provided greater tax deductions for education expenses and savings.
This Act authorizes expanded research and services for a a number of different childhood health problems, reauthorizes programs for substance abuse and mental health services for choldren, and works to improve the health and safety of children in child care.
The purpose of this Act was to extend and amend the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program, provide new authority to support programs for mentoring children of incarcerated parents, and amend the Foster Care Independent Living program under title IV-E to provide for educational and training vouchers for youth aging out of foster care.
Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003 increases the penalties for sex offenders, lengthens the statue of limitations for child abduction or abuse, and establishes an Amber Alert System for abducted children.
CAPTA was further amended by the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003, which amended title I and replaced Title II Community-Based Family Resource and Support Program with Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.
Reauthorized the adoption incentive payments program under part E of title IV of the Social Security Act.It also authorized the Secretary to impose specified penalties against a State for failure to provide necessary data to the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS).
Megan's Law provides the public with certain information on the whereabouts of sex offenders so that members of our local communities may protect themselves and their children.
Amended part E of title IV of the Social Security Act to allow foster care maintenance payments to be paid on behalf of eligible children through a nonprofit or for-profit child-placement or child care agencies.
Title VII of this act provides for reauthorization of the TANF program, Healthy Marriage and Family funds, Court Improvement Program, Safe and Stable Families Program, and other child welfare programs
The purpose of this Act was to protect children from sexual exploitation and violent crimes; to prevent child abuse and child ponography with an emphasis on comprehensive strategies across Federal, State, and local comminities to prevent sex offenders access to children; to promote Internet safety; and to honor the memory of Adam Walsh and other child crime victims.
The purpose of theis Act was to improve protections for children and to hold States accountable for the safe and timely placement of children across State lines.
Changed the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program from a permanent authorization to a 5-year authorization with $325 million in funding for each federal fiscal year from 2007-2011. It required states to submit anual forms regarding planned child and family services expenditures.
Amended the Social Security Act to include all foster children assisted by title IV-B and IV-E of the Act and children receiving title IV-E adoption assitance in the groups exempt from the requirement to present documentary evidence of citizenshp or nationality if they declare themselves to be citizens or nationals of the United States. It also added new provisions that require State plans to include procedures verifying the citizenship or immigation status of children in foster care.
Provides debt relief for graduates who are repaying federal student loans, allowing federal loan forgiveness for graduates working in public service jobs. Any outstanding federal loan balance will be forgiven once 120 loan payments (generally, 10 years) have been made while working in an eligible public service position.
Amended parts B and E of the Social Security Act to connect and support relative caregivers, improve outcomes for children in foster care, provide tribal foster care and adoption acess, and to improve incentives for adoption .
The purpose was to ammend the Public Health Service Act in order to provide better health-care coverage for all Americans and to impprive heath-care services for underserved communities. Medicaid coverage was extended to former foster care children younger that 26 years of age. Required a State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and all low-income children were made eligible. Proviced grands for early childhood education. Established a pregnancy Assitance Fund for grants to States to assist pregnant and parenting teens and women.
This Act ammends the Immigration and Nationality Act to allow the birth sibling of an adopted child to qualify as a Hague Convention adoptee after the birth sibling’s 16th birthday, but prior to the birth sibling’s 18th birthday. It also allows adopting parents in the United States to wait to immunize their children in the United States (within 30 days of entering the U.S.).
This law grants lawful permanent resident status to certain orphaned children from Haiti, who were paroled into the United States under the Haitian Orphan Parole Program after the January 12, 2010 earthquake.
This legislation authorizes funding and sets policy for USDA's core child nutrition programs: the National School Lunch Program, the School Breakfast Program, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), the Summer Food Service Program, and the Child and Adult Care Food Program.
The Child Abuse and Prevention Treatment Act (CAPTA) was most recently amended and reauthorized on December 20, 2010. It also ammended the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act and the Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978.
Required each state to plan for oversight and coordination of health care services for any child in foster care. Increased the amount of hours that caseworkers were expected to spend on visits to children in foster care during a fiscal year. Revised grant and court improvement programs that affected foster care children.
The CAPTA Reauthorization Act of 2010, included the Adoption
Opportunities program and Abandoned Infants Assistance Act.