APUSH: Semester 1 final

Up to the 1920s

Eras/Periods

Pre-British-Colonial

1492 - 1607

Colonial period

1607 - 1776

Presidents/VP/Cabinet members

Economy

Government

Wars

Working class

Blacks

First African slaves in NA

1619
  1. Please note that in the early years of Virginia and Maryland, white indentured servants were more common than black slaves

Virgiinia slave code

1662
  1. Virginia said a child's would inherit the status of their mother, regardless of the father

Slavery begins to overtake servitude

1680

"In the 1680s the drawbacks to African slavery began to vanish. Mortality ratkes fell in the Chesapeake and the English broek the Dutch monopoly on the slave trade."

New York Slave Revolt

1712
  1. in 1712 a couple dozen black slaves in NY set some buildings ablaze and killed nine whites.
  2. This is an example of racial tension even in the north. It also worsened tensions. 29 years later 101 blacks were arrested, 18 hanged, and 18 burnt alive because of a rumor that they were going to start a fire.

Stono Rebellion

1739
  1. In South Carolina 20 slaves gathered together, stole firearms, then killed white families, store owners, etc. and openly rebelled and invited others to join them.
  2. Up to 100 joined, until a white militia killed or executed them.

  3. This was one of the causes of harsher slave laws

Women

The West and expansion

Bacon's Rebellion

1676
  1. Newcomers to the colony had previously been forced to the back country, where they faced violence from natives
  2. The governor/leader refused to provide assistance, so Bacon led an armed resistance against them, then threatened to burn down Jamestown if the leader (Berkley) did not approve. He didn't, so Bacon burned the place down.
  3. Britain sent in some soldiers, but Bacon died and his army fizzled out.

Paxton Boys

1763
  1. After 1760 westward movement increased a lot.
  2. Back country people had no protection from natives (since not taking over their land apparently wasn't an option...)
  3. In 1763 the Paxton Boys massacred a bunch of Conestoga natives then demanded harsher Indian policy. Ben Franklin gave them what they wanted.

Carolinas Regulators

1771
  1. Starting in the 1760s back-country Carolina-ians were sick of the lack of help from government, lack of representation, and/or the corruptness of the little government they had. So they formed their own vigilante groups.
  2. They dispensed justice on their own and in NC had a mini-civil-war against corrupt politicians.
  3. They were crushed in 1771,

Native Americans

95% of Natives dead b/c of disease

1592

"It is estimated that upwards of 80–95 percent of the Native American population was decimated within the first 100–150 years following 1492; the most affected regions in the Americas lost 100% of their population."

Indian massacre of 1622

1622
  1. Natives (led by Opchanacanough of the Powhatan Confederacy) kill 300-350 Virginians, 1/4 of the total Virginian population

Pequot War

1636 - 1638
  1. Massachusetts and Connecticut were arguing over some land in NE. They agreed that whoever conquered the Pequots would get the land. 2.5. Winthrop's tactics included killing civilian women and children instead of attacking warriors.
  2. The war was devastating to the Pequots. Connecticut won.

King Phillip's War

1675 - 1678
  1. A conflict broke out between the Wampanoag (led by Metacomet/King Phillip) and the Plymouth colonists.
  2. The war was brutal. It was ended when the NY governor sent in troops and Metacomet was killed.
  3. After this war opposition to expansion in the northern colonies was minimal, mostly because a bunch of natives were dead.

Literature/movements/religion

Beginning of Enlightenment

1715
  1. Intellectual movement encouraging critical thinking and stuff and discouraging blind tradition.
  2. Included deism and the Social Contract
  3. Famous people were John Locke

1st Great Awakening begins

1734
  1. Somewhere around here-ish, there was a revival of fiery preachers that warned of hell and stuff and Jesus. These preachers became very popular, and these people were called Awakeners.
  2. George Whitefield is the most important person from the movement.
  3. There was tension between "old-lights" and Awakeners.
  4. This movement happened with the Enlightenment, and were kind of opposite movements, although they targeted different social classes.

(Pre-)Colonial

Columbian Exchange begins

1492

The exchange of crops, animals, and diseases between Europe and America (and Africa).
1. Diseases brought by Europeans, especially smallpox, will wipe out ~90% of the native population
2. Crops transplanted to America will be bad for native plants, and European grazing animals will be bad for native plants
3. American crops brought to Europe (maize, tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco) will lead to a increased food production and a massive population boost in Europe that will spill into America.

  • The exchange becomes a cycle. The increased population in Europe required more centralized governments. The new governments were for/able to explore more because they had more power. As a result, more Europeans in America.
  • Europeans in America > American food in Europe, European diseases in America > Population boom in Europe > More Europeans in America

Columbus discovers America

1492
  1. Italian sailor (hired by Spain) discovers America on accident.
  2. Poor native Americans :(

Salutary Neglect

1607 - 1763
  1. England had practiced Salutary Neglect this whole time, mostly allowing the colonies to do as they please as long as they remained obedient.
  2. They didn't allow them complete control, however, which caused some tensions, but it was no biggie.

Jamestown, Virginia

1607
  1. Founded by the Virginia/London joint-stock company
  2. Pretty secular and profit oriented (gold)
  3. Had difficulty surviving, but John Smith helped them

4. Exceptionally mediocre relations with natives (on and off wars) b/c of Smith

History:
1. John Smith ran the place like the military, but increased productivity
2. John Rolfe transplanted a tobacco strain that became popular in England, economic boom.
3. They create some sort of Headright System, ending military style control
4. In 1622 or so, the neighboring tribe killed 300, about 1/4 of the colonists.
5. King James takes control of colony

Plymouth colony and Mayflower Compact

1620
  1. Religious separatists called Pilgrims had immigrated to America on the Mayflower (which was carrying plenty of non-Pilgrims)
  2. They arrived in America at the wrong place
  3. To get people to stay and keep order and stuff they created a government with this document that gave all men some political rights
  4. Once again, they struggled to survive but Squanto helped them.

Massachusetts Bay and Winthrop

1629
  1. John Winthrop and other Puritans founded this colony, not far from the Plymouth colony.
  2. Equal number of men and women, not profit oriented, extremely religious and tried to recreate social patterns of England. The Great Migration brought many Puritans escaping the King's assholery.
  3. Church and state extremely intertwined, very strict. They exiled any dissenters.
  4. Winthrop was such an asshat that New Hampshire (1623), Connecticut (1635), Rhode Island (1636), and Maine (d. ?) were all founded by people escaping or exiled from Massachusetts. For example, Anne Hutchinson was a female preacher who dissented with Winthrop's views and was exiled. Same thing with Roger Williams, who founded RI.

New York

1664
  1. England took control of New Netherlands from the Dutch in 1664. It was a multicultural, commercial, and competitive place. Pretty religiously tolerant, trade based, etc.

Penn and Pennsylvania

1682
  1. William Penn was granted a charter to land he called Pennsylvania.
  2. Penn was the bomb (opposite of Winthrop). He encouraged multiculturalism, religious tolerance and acceptance, respect for all individuals, gender equality... He ignored economic class in church and as a voting req. Basically he was egalitarian.
  3. After he died though all these Quaker values started to simmer down, but still Pennsylvania was successful and dynamic.

Dominion of NE and Mass.

1685
  1. in 1685 English kings had revoked the charter of NE colonies and weaken the religious institution there, in addition to imposing taxes. When Andros was sent to be the Dominion's governors colonists kidnapped him and sent him back.

  2. Important!: Around this time New England colonies started shifting toward a "yankee" culture, one placing less importance on religion and more on trade. This in part leads to the Salem Witch Trials

Leisler's Rebellion

1689
  1. The rebellion was similar to the one in Boston where they got rid of Andros, the new governor for the Dominion of NE.
  2. In New York Jacob Leisler took control of the whole colony and ignored the King.
  3. He was eventually arrested and executed by the new governor the king sent.
  4. Leislerism lingered in the political cultural for a while (ie. opposition to the King. There was also a loyalist faction)

Salem Witch Trials

1692 - 1693
  1. Some random young girls accused some people of being witches, public perception was the devil took stuff over or something. Lots of farmers and Puritans had accused "yankee" merchants of being a witch or some nonsense like that and 100s were imprisoned and 19 executed. Governor Phips stopped it all.

  2. The important thing here is the tension between the religious Puritans and the more secular merchants that were starting to take over.