Settled in the Fertile Crescent, the Sumerians achieved extraordinary achievements. They invented writing systems, irrigation, and traded with others.
First cities in Mesopotamia
The Old Kingdom of Egypt
3100 bce - 2200 bce
After the unification of Egypt and the first dynasty (Menes), great Pyramids were built. The Egyptians adopted theocracy, in which the pharaoh is a god.
Formation of the Akkadian Empire
This empire endured less than 100 years, but nevertheless carried the Sumerian culture all across the Fertile Crescent.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt
2100 bce - 1650 bce
A period of strong pharaohs. During this time the Grand Canal was dug from the Nile to the Red Sea, promoting trade.
Phoenician Societies Established
Settled in present day Lebanon, these people depended on trading due to the lack of fertile land that can be used for agriculture.
Civilization in Italy
The First Indo-Europeans settled in Italy
Hitties Arrive in Anatolia
semi nomadic, Indo -European group.
Minoan Culture Flourished
1650 bce - 1450 bce
On the Island of Crete, the Minoans flourished. They lived during peace times and traded with other cultures. Their language is the Linear A, a form adopted from Egyptian hieroglyphics, and remained undecipherable.
By this time the Hittites occupied Babylon and assimilated Sumerian culture.
The New Kingdom of Egypt
1550 bce - 700 bce
Followed upon by an invasion of the Hykos, these rulers adopted Egyptian culture and called themselves pharaohs as well.
Hittites introduced iron smelting
The Hittites introduced iron smelting.
Aryans invade the Indus Valley
Aryans, from present day Iran and Afghanistan, were Indo-European and nomadic.
Mycenaeans took over Crete
This group invaded Crete. Their language system is called Linear B, adopted from Minoan Linear A.
Dorians dominated Greece
1100 bce - 800 bce
Chaos sprung all over Greece, and the Greek culture faced near total destruction under the Dorian rule.
Kingdom of Kush Established
The Kingdom of Kush, south of Egypt, rose to power.
Etruscans Settled in Italy
Etruscans from Anatolia settled in Italy
First Olympic Games
According to Roman legend, Romulus established Rome in 753BC
Fall of the Kingdom of Israel
The Kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians, who dispersed the Hebrews all across their empire.
700 bce - 500 bce
This large scale Bantu migration took place from Nigeria to south eastern Africa.
Founder of Buddhism Lived
563 bce - 483 bce
Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism, preached a religion based on the Four Noble Truths. He preached in India against the Hindus.
551 bce - 479 bce
The Chinese philosopher Confucius lived during this period.
Persian conquest of Egypt
The Roman Republic was founded
500 bce - 479 bce
Persian invasion against the Greek city states.
Rise of Sparta
The Spartans, descendants of the Dorians, rose to power due to a strong military system.
The Nok Culture
500 bce - 200 ad
The Nok culture in west Africa produced many artifacts and is known for its terra cotta sculptures.
Formation of Confucianism and Daoism
Confucianism and Daoism, two prominent religions in China, were established.
Golden age of Athens
495 bce - 429 bce
Under the aristocrat Pericles, Athenian culture flourished. Great philosophers also rose to prominence.
Twelve Tables written
The Roman codes of Law, Twelve Tables were written.
Formation of Legalism
A philosophy in China, which argued against freedom of speech and in favour of government control.
Alexander the Great conquered Persia
Romans Controlled Italy
By this time, the Roman Republic controlled most of Italy except the Po Valley.
264 BC - 146 BC
Rome conflicted against the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and Rome emerged victorious after Hannibal was defeated.
Meroe at its height
250 bce - 150 ad
The capital of Kush, Meroe, was prosperous during this period, and it became a major trade center for iron smelting.
The Han (West) Empire of China
206 BC - 6 CE
The Han Empire was established in China, succeeding Qin. After overthrown by Wang Mang, Wang is then also overthrown and East Han dynasty begins.
First Era of the Silk Roads
150 BC - 900 AD
During this period, the silk road flourished, a major trade route that transported goods from China to West Asia, North Africa and the Indian Ocean
Rome controls the Mediterranean
Buddhism reached China
Buddhism reached China
Julius Caesar elected proconsul
Julius Caesar was named consul. Using this position, he aided the poor and won further favors from the masses.
Julius Caesar Assassinated
Establishment of Roman Empire
Octavian became the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
20 BC - 180 ad
During this time, Rome experience peace and tranquility, as no major conflicts broke out. This period were ruled by Good Emperors.
Birth of Jesus
Jesus was born in Judea.
The Han (East) Dynasty of China
23 CE - 220 cE
The East Han Dynasty was founded after Wang Mang was overthrown. However, China remained in turmoils as generals seized power. The empire eventually fell to northern barbarians.
Fall of Masada
The last Jewish stronghold, Masada fell to the Romans, who dispersed the Jews throughout the Empire. This is also the start of the Second Diaspora.
Beginning of Civil War in Rome
The Romans were weakened by barbarian attacks from the Huns, Gauls, etc. The end of Pax Romana brought a civil war in Rome, producing 28 generals as emperors in less than 100 years.
Council of Nicaea
This council asserted that while Christ was alive, he was fully human but at the same time divine.
Roman capital moved to Constantinople
Emperor Constantine moved the imperial capital to the then small trading town, Constantinople due to the fears of barbarian attacks.
Romans adopted Christianity
Emperor Thedosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Alaric sacks Rome
Alaric, King of the Visgoths, sacked Rome.
Last Roman Emperor Overthrown
Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor, was overthrown. This officially marks the fall of the Roman Empire.
Finding of the Rosetta Stone
French soldiers serving under Napoleon uncovered the Rosetta Stone, which aided linguists in deciphering hieroglyohics.