Settled in the Fertile Crescent, the Sumerians achieved extraordinary achievements. They invented writing systems, irrigation, and traded with others.
After the unification of Egypt and the first dynasty (Menes), great Pyramids were built. The Egyptians adopted theocracy, in which the pharaoh is a god.
This empire endured less than 100 years, but nevertheless carried the Sumerian culture all across the Fertile Crescent.
A period of strong pharaohs. During this time the Grand Canal was dug from the Nile to the Red Sea, promoting trade.
semi nomadic, Indo -European group.
The First Indo-Europeans settled in Italy
Settled in present day Lebanon, these people depended on trading due to the lack of fertile land that can be used for agriculture.
By this time the Hittites occupied Babylon and assimilated Sumerian culture.
On the Island of Crete, the Minoans flourished. They lived during peace times and traded with other cultures. Their language is the Linear A, a form adopted from Egyptian hieroglyphics, and remained undecipherable.
Followed upon by an invasion of the Hykos, these rulers adopted Egyptian culture and called themselves pharaohs as well.
Aryans, from present day Iran and Afghanistan, were Indo-European and nomadic.
The Hittites introduced iron smelting.
This group invaded Crete. Their language system is called Linear B, adopted from Minoan Linear A.
Chaos sprung all over Greece, and the Greek culture faced near total destruction under the Dorian rule.
The Kingdom of Kush, south of Egypt, rose to power.
Etruscans from Anatolia settled in Italy
According to Roman legend, Romulus established Rome in 753BC
The Kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians, who dispersed the Hebrews all across their empire.
This large scale Bantu migration took place from Nigeria to south eastern Africa.
Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism, preached a religion based on the Four Noble Truths. He preached in India against the Hindus.
The Chinese philosopher Confucius lived during this period.
The Roman Republic was founded
Confucianism and Daoism, two prominent religions in China, were established.
The Nok culture in west Africa produced many artifacts and is known for its terra cotta sculptures.
The Spartans, descendants of the Dorians, rose to power due to a strong military system.
Persian invasion against the Greek city states.
Under the aristocrat Pericles, Athenian culture flourished. Great philosophers also rose to prominence.
The Roman codes of Law, Twelve Tables were written.
A philosophy in China, which argued against freedom of speech and in favour of government control.
By this time, the Roman Republic controlled most of Italy except the Po Valley.
Rome conflicted against the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and Rome emerged victorious after Hannibal was defeated.
The capital of Kush, Meroe, was prosperous during this period, and it became a major trade center for iron smelting.
The Han Empire was established in China, succeeding Qin. After overthrown by Wang Mang, Wang is then also overthrown and East Han dynasty begins.
During this period, the silk road flourished, a major trade route that transported goods from China to West Asia, North Africa and the Indian Ocean
Buddhism reached China
Julius Caesar was named consul. Using this position, he aided the poor and won further favors from the masses.
Octavian became the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
During this time, Rome experience peace and tranquility, as no major conflicts broke out. This period were ruled by Good Emperors.
Jesus was born in Judea.
The East Han Dynasty was founded after Wang Mang was overthrown. However, China remained in turmoils as generals seized power. The empire eventually fell to northern barbarians.
The last Jewish stronghold, Masada fell to the Romans, who dispersed the Jews throughout the Empire. This is also the start of the Second Diaspora.
The Romans were weakened by barbarian attacks from the Huns, Gauls, etc. The end of Pax Romana brought a civil war in Rome, producing 28 generals as emperors in less than 100 years.
This council asserted that while Christ was alive, he was fully human but at the same time divine.
Emperor Constantine moved the imperial capital to the then small trading town, Constantinople due to the fears of barbarian attacks.
Emperor Thedosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Alaric, King of the Visgoths, sacked Rome.
Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor, was overthrown. This officially marks the fall of the Roman Empire.
French soldiers serving under Napoleon uncovered the Rosetta Stone, which aided linguists in deciphering hieroglyohics.