Universal History by Kevin J. Guo


Sumerians moved into Mesopotamia

4000 bce

Settled in the Fertile Crescent, the Sumerians achieved extraordinary achievements. They invented writing systems, irrigation, and traded with others.

First cities in Mesopotamia

3500 bce

The Old Kingdom of Egypt

3100 bce - 2200 bce

After the unification of Egypt and the first dynasty (Menes), great Pyramids were built. The Egyptians adopted theocracy, in which the pharaoh is a god.

Formation of the Akkadian Empire

2300 bce

This empire endured less than 100 years, but nevertheless carried the Sumerian culture all across the Fertile Crescent.

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt

2100 bce - 1650 bce

A period of strong pharaohs. During this time the Grand Canal was dug from the Nile to the Red Sea, promoting trade.

Hitties Arrive in Anatolia

2000 bce

semi nomadic, Indo -European group.

Civilization in Italy

2000 BCE

The First Indo-Europeans settled in Italy

Phoenician Societies Established

2000 bce

Settled in present day Lebanon, these people depended on trading due to the lack of fertile land that can be used for agriculture.

Hittites Empire

1650 bce

By this time the Hittites occupied Babylon and assimilated Sumerian culture.

Minoan Culture Flourished

1650 bce - 1450 bce

On the Island of Crete, the Minoans flourished. They lived during peace times and traded with other cultures. Their language is the Linear A, a form adopted from Egyptian hieroglyphics, and remained undecipherable.

The New Kingdom of Egypt

1550 bce - 700 bce

Followed upon by an invasion of the Hykos, these rulers adopted Egyptian culture and called themselves pharaohs as well.

Aryans invade the Indus Valley

1500 bce

Aryans, from present day Iran and Afghanistan, were Indo-European and nomadic.

Hittites introduced iron smelting

1500 bce

The Hittites introduced iron smelting.

Mycenaeans took over Crete

1450 bce

This group invaded Crete. Their language system is called Linear B, adopted from Minoan Linear A.

Dorians dominated Greece

1100 bce - 800 bce

Chaos sprung all over Greece, and the Greek culture faced near total destruction under the Dorian rule.

Kingdom of Kush Established

1000 bce

The Kingdom of Kush, south of Egypt, rose to power.

Etruscans Settled in Italy

800 BC

Etruscans from Anatolia settled in Italy

First Olympic Games

776 bce

Rome established

753 BC

According to Roman legend, Romulus established Rome in 753BC

Fall of the Kingdom of Israel

722 bce

The Kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians, who dispersed the Hebrews all across their empire.

Bantu Migrations

700 bce - 500 bce

This large scale Bantu migration took place from Nigeria to south eastern Africa.

Founder of Buddhism Lived

563 bce - 483 bce

Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism, preached a religion based on the Four Noble Truths. He preached in India against the Hindus.


551 bce - 479 bce

The Chinese philosopher Confucius lived during this period.

Persian conquest of Egypt

525 bce

Roman Republic

509 BC

The Roman Republic was founded

Formation of Confucianism and Daoism

500 bce

Confucianism and Daoism, two prominent religions in China, were established.

The Nok Culture

500 bce - 200 ad

The Nok culture in west Africa produced many artifacts and is known for its terra cotta sculptures.

Rise of Sparta

500 bce

The Spartans, descendants of the Dorians, rose to power due to a strong military system.

Persian Wars

500 bce - 479 bce

Persian invasion against the Greek city states.

Golden age of Athens

495 bce - 429 bce

Under the aristocrat Pericles, Athenian culture flourished. Great philosophers also rose to prominence.

Twelve Tables written

451 bc

The Roman codes of Law, Twelve Tables were written.

Formation of Legalism

350 bce

A philosophy in China, which argued against freedom of speech and in favour of government control.

Alexander the Great conquered Persia

330 bce

Romans Controlled Italy

265 BC

By this time, the Roman Republic controlled most of Italy except the Po Valley.

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

Rome conflicted against the Phoenician colony of Carthage, and Rome emerged victorious after Hannibal was defeated.

Meroe at its height

250 bce - 150 ad

The capital of Kush, Meroe, was prosperous during this period, and it became a major trade center for iron smelting.

The Han (West) Empire of China

206 BC - 6 CE

The Han Empire was established in China, succeeding Qin. After overthrown by Wang Mang, Wang is then also overthrown and East Han dynasty begins.

First Era of the Silk Roads

150 BC - 900 AD

During this period, the silk road flourished, a major trade route that transported goods from China to West Asia, North Africa and the Indian Ocean

Rome controls the Mediterranean

148 bc

Buddhism reached China

100 bc

Buddhism reached China

Julius Caesar elected proconsul

59 bc

Julius Caesar was named consul. Using this position, he aided the poor and won further favors from the masses.

Julius Caesar Assassinated

44 bc

Establishment of Roman Empire

27 bce

Octavian became the first emperor of the Roman Empire.

Pax Romana

20 BC - 180 ad

During this time, Rome experience peace and tranquility, as no major conflicts broke out. This period were ruled by Good Emperors.

Birth of Jesus

4 bce

Jesus was born in Judea.

The Han (East) Dynasty of China

23 CE - 220 cE

The East Han Dynasty was founded after Wang Mang was overthrown. However, China remained in turmoils as generals seized power. The empire eventually fell to northern barbarians.

Fall of Masada

73 ce

The last Jewish stronghold, Masada fell to the Romans, who dispersed the Jews throughout the Empire. This is also the start of the Second Diaspora.

Beginning of Civil War in Rome

200 ce

The Romans were weakened by barbarian attacks from the Huns, Gauls, etc. The end of Pax Romana brought a civil war in Rome, producing 28 generals as emperors in less than 100 years.

Council of Nicaea

325 ad

This council asserted that while Christ was alive, he was fully human but at the same time divine.

Roman capital moved to Constantinople

330 ce

Emperor Constantine moved the imperial capital to the then small trading town, Constantinople due to the fears of barbarian attacks.

Romans adopted Christianity

380 ce

Emperor Thedosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.

Alaric sacks Rome

410 ce

Alaric, King of the Visgoths, sacked Rome.

Last Roman Emperor Overthrown

476 ce

Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor, was overthrown. This officially marks the fall of the Roman Empire.

Finding of the Rosetta Stone


French soldiers serving under Napoleon uncovered the Rosetta Stone, which aided linguists in deciphering hieroglyohics.