History Of China

Main

Early Hunting & Fishing Families Existed

4000 BC

Silk Discovered

2500 BC

Yu passed the throne to Zi Qi

2100 BC

Zi Qi became the ruler & Xia Dynasty was found.

Xia Dynasty

2100 BC

Xia Dynasty was the first dynasty of China. Xia dynasty can be dated back to 1600 B.C. The region of Xia dynasty was near Henan and Shaanxi province. Thesere two provinces are civilization cradle of Chinese. Henan and Shaanxi are rich in historical sites and cultural sites of China. Chinese culture and history are originated from these areas
There were 13 generations and 16 kings in Xia dynasty. The capital area of Xia dynasty was located in the western part of Henan and the northern part of Shanxi. It was said that the regime of the Xia has been stoped at some time. It was Shaokang to rebuild Xia dynasty. After that, Xia declined continuously and was replaced by Shang dynasty finishing its 400 years of existing.
Because there were no words to record the events of Xia dynasty, most of the information of Xia was learned from some ancient record, including the remains of the king, officials and the prison conditions. In recent years, many huge palace, mausoleum and bronze have been unearthed. They also reflected from another side the politics, economic, cultural and life. This help people learn more about the first and special age in China's history. As the first prehistoric country in China mainland, Xia dynasty is an important dinasty with great history research. It's rich culture plays a important role in the culture of China and the whole history of China.

Shang Dynasty

2000 bc

The long period of the Bronze Age in China, which began around 2000 B.C., saw the growth and maturity of a civilization that would be sustained in its essential aspects for another 2,000 years. In the early stages of this development, the process of urbanization went hand in hand with the establishment of a social order. In China, as in other societies, the mechanism that generated social cohesion, and at a later stage statecraft, was ritualization. As most of the paraphernalia for early rituals were made in bronze and as rituals carried such an important social function, it is perhaps possible to read into the forms and decorations of these objects some of the central concerns of the societies (at least the upper sectors of the societies) that produced them.

The Canadian Embassy Opened in Beijing

1970 BC

The Cultural Revolution

1966 BC

Chinese tried to push foreigners out

1850 BC

Foreign Traders fought for more Trading Ports

1839 BC

First American Sailing Ships Arrived in China

1784 BC

Bronze Weapons & Chariots were in use

1760 BC

European Sailing Ships Reach China

1700 BC

Shang Tang

1600 BC

Shang Tang defeated Xia.

bronze age

1600 bc

The long period of the Bronze Age in China, which began around 2000 B.C., saw the growth and maturity of a civilization that would be sustained in its essential aspects for another 2,000 years. In the early stages of this development, the process of urbanization went hand in hand with the establishment of a social order. In China, as in other societies, the mechanism that generated social cohesion, and at a later stage statecraft, was ritualization. As most of the paraphernalia for early rituals were made in bronze and as rituals carried such an important social function, it is perhaps possible to read into the forms and decorations of these objects some of the central concerns of the societies (at least the upper sectors of the societies) that produced them.

Yin became capital

1400 BC

Pan Geng, moved the capital to Yin.

The Great Wall was Rebuilt using better Materials

1368 BC

Silk

1300 BC

China was the first to discover this fine thread !

Marco Polo Traveled to China

1275 BC

King Zhou Wu conquered Shang and founded Western Zhou dynasty

1100 BC

Earliest Chinese Writings were found in Bamboo Books

1100 BC

Zhou Dynasty

1046 bc

They defeated shang dynasty. Emporess Wu came to power. A piece of historical art was made.

China Created Calendars

1000 BC

Mechanical Clock in Use

1000 BC

First Paper Money was Introduced

960 BC

Peasants revolt. Chinese calendar system and history recording were started

841 BC

Quan Rong, a barbarian tribe, sacked Hao Jing

771 BC

Quan Rong, a barbarian tribe, sacked Hao Jin, the capital of Western Zhou. Western Zhou dynasty ended

King Pin shifted the capital to Luo Yi. Eastern Zhou dynasty began

770 BC

Writings of Lao Zi

750 BC

Islam Introduced to China

700 BC

Cina began to use a Coin Money System

700 BC

Tang Dynasty

618 BC

The Tang is widely regarded as the height of imperial China.Economically, territorially, and socially, the Tang was firing on all cylinders. China reached its largest size up to this point in history, reaching Korea, Vietnam and much of Central Asia. Trade flourished by land and sea.Some of China’s finest arts and literature also came out of the Tang. The Tang also holds the unique distinction of having China’s only female to hold the title of emperor (Empress, Wu), who historians regard as brilliant but ruthless

Lu state began to impose tax on land

594 BC

Sui Dynasty

581 BC

Often compared to the Qin, since they were both short-lived with iron-fisted rules who forced huge chunks of the population into massive project. The Sui dynasty sets up their capital at Chang'an, which has been preferred capital for last 16 centuries by almost a dozon dynasties up to this point. One persistent problem with Chang'an: it's poorly located, requiring food and suppiles to be transported far from the South. An ambitious project rivaling the Great Wall in magnitude, the Great Canal provided an unbroken inland transport between the Yellow and Yangzi rivers. At it's peak, it was over 2,000km long, linking five rivers systems and extended from Beijing and Hangzhou. Many parts are still in use today. Although the canal network would increase trade, wealth, and integration, it sowed the seeds of the Sui’s downfall.Apparently they didn’t learn from the Qin. Some 5.5 million were conscripted to work on it.Another million or so were sent to restore the Great Wall.Not surprisingly, the people were NOT happy.

Confucious became known

551 BC

Earliest Magnetic Compass used in this Time

475 BC

Dong Jin Dynasty

420 BC

Ancient China comes into a disunity country which lasted for 169 years. China was divided to the northern part and the southern part in Dong Jin dynasty. The northern was apposed by the southern for a long time. There were four dynasties in the south, Song, Qi, Liang, Chen. They replaced each other from the begin to the end. The dynasties in the south sharing one capital in Jiang Kang( Nan Jing in today) besides Jiang Ling, which is the capital city of Liang Yuan Di.

Han Dynasty

420 BC

China was reunited under the rule of Han dynasty.. Liu Bang becomes emperor and Han state loosens opposition to Confucianism. Dong Zhongshu revises Confucianism as state scholar, with new emphasis on yin/yang cosmology.

Han, Zhao, Wei (3 families) became feudal lords

403 BC

Wu Qi became legal advisor of Chu state, began reform

382 BC

Shang Yang became the legal advisor of Qin state, began 1st reform

359 BC

King Zhao Wu Ling carried out military reform

299 BC

King Zhao Wu Ling of Zhao State carried out military reform by adopting steppe cavalry warfare tactics of the “hu” people in the so-called “Hu Fu Qi She”
First adoption of cavalry in Chinese army

Qin State sacked Chu’s capital

278 BC

Qin State sacked Chu’s capital, Ying (郢). Qu Yuan (屈原), the patriotic official of Chu state, committed suicide by drowning himself at Luo river

Jin Dynasty

265 BC

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftan Wányán Āgǔdǎ in 1115. In 1125, it successfully annihilated the Liao Dynasty which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. Also at this time, the Jin made overtures to the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which Emperor Yejong refused.

On January 9, 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace. [edit] The migration south Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty, Shanghai Museum. After taking over Northern China, the Jin Dynasty became increasingly Sinicized. About three million people, half of them Jurchens, migrated south into northern China over two decades, and this minority governed about thirty million people. The Jurchens were given land grants and organized society into 1,000 households and 100 household. Many married Hans, although the ban on Jurchen nobles marrying Hans was not lifted until 1191.

Shang Yang carried out 2nd legalist reform in Qin state

250 BC

invention of row planting

240 bc

The Chinese started planting crops in rows sometime in the 6th century BC. This technique allows the crops to grow faster and stronger. It facilitates more efficient planting, watering, weeding and harvesting. There is also documentation that they realized that as the wind travels over rows of plants there is less damage. This obvious development was not instituted in the western world for another 2200 years. Master Lu wrote in the “Spring and Autumn Annals”: ‘If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other’s growth. The horizontal rows must be well drawn, the vertical rows made with skill, for if the lines are straight the wind will pass gently through.’

The Chinese started to use Chopsticks

221 BC

The Great Wall was ordered to be Built

221 BC

Qin Dynasty

221 bc

Feudalism abolished on reccomendation of Li Si, who becomes prime minister. The great book proscription was written. First emperor dies.

the great wall of china

221 bc

The building of the Great Wall of China, one of the legendary seven wonders of the world, began in 221 BC in an effort to keep Mongol invaders out. In the 600's AD, the Sui Emperor Yang Di began a huge project of repairing the ancient wall. The costs of rebuilding the wall were enormous. The construction involved the forced labor of hundreds of thousands of people, many of whom died from the harsh working conditions and were buried in the wall itself. Costs were also increased by the frequent robbery of supply wagons. 15,000 defense towers and forts were constructed along the walls. It remains the largest structure ever built anywhere in the world, and is the only human made work on earth visible from orbit.

Six Dynasties Period

220 bc

Period of disunity and instability following the fall of the Han; Buddhism introduced to China

The Three Kingdoms

220 bc

Cao Wei, Shu Han, Dong Wu

Terra Cotta Warriors were Buried

206 BC

iron plows

202 bc

One of the major developments of the ancient Chinese agriculture was the use of the iron moldboard plows. Though probably first developed in the 4th century BC and promoted by the central government, they were popular and common by the Han Dynasty. (So I am using the more conservative date). A major invention was the adjustable strut which, by altering the distance of the blade and the beam, could precisely set the depth of the plow. This technology was not instituted into England and Holland until the 17th century, sparking an abundance of food which some experts say was a necessary prerequisite for the industrial revolution.

invention of deep drilling

202 bc

By the first century BC the Chinese had developed the technology for deep drilling boreholes. Some of these reached depths of 4800 feet (about 1.5 km). They used technology that would be easily recognizable to a modern engineer and lay person alike. Derricks would rise as much as 180 feet above the borehole. They stacked rocks with center holes (tube or doughnut shaped) from the surface to the deep stone layer as a guide for their drills (similar to today’s guide tubes). With hemp ropes and bamboo cables reaching deep into the ground, they employed cast iron drills to reach the natural gas they used as a fuel to evaporate water from brine to produce salt. The natural gas was carried via bamboo pipes to where it was needed. There is also some evidence that the gas was used for light. While I could not find exactly when deep drilling was first used by the Europeans, I did not find any evidence prior to the early industrial revolution

Wheelbarrow now used in China

200 BC

The Silk Road was now used.

140 BC

The Silk Road was used to travel throughout China. It was used for commerce.

Earliest Paper was Manufactured

105 BC

Buddhism was Intoduced

100 BC

invention of ships rudder

100 ad

Chinese naval developments occurred far earlier than similar western technology. The first recorded use of rudder technology in the West was in 1180. Chinese pottery models of sophisticated slung axial rudders (enabling the rudder to be lifted in shallow waters) dating from the 1st century have been found. Early rudder technology (c 100 AD) also included the easier to use balanced rudder (where part of the blade was in front of the steering post), first adopted by England in 1843 – some 1700 years later. In another naval development, fenestrated rudders were common on Chinese ships by the 13th century which were not introduced to the west until 1901. Fenestration is the adding of holes to the rudder where it does not affect the steering, yet make the rudder easy to turn. This innovation finally enabled European torpedo boats to use their rudders while traveling at high speed (about 30 knots).

Paper

105 AD

Paper was invented in China.

Tea

264 AD

Tea leaves were first used to make tea starting in 264 AD. Tea was brought to the West during the 1600s.

Kite

549 AD

The kite was also invented in China. It wasn't until 1589 that the west got ahold of the kite.

invention of porcelain

581 ad

Porcelain is a very specific kind of ceramic produced by the extreme temperatures of a kiln. The materials fuse and form a glass and mineral compound known for its strength, translucence and beauty. Invented during the Sui Dynasty (but possibly earlier) and perfected during the Tang Dynasty (618-906), most notably by Tao-Yue (c. 608 – c. 676), Chinese porcelain was highly prized throughout the world. The porcelain of Tao-Yue used a ‘white clay’ that was found on the edge of the Yangtze River, where he lived. By the time of the Sung Dynasty (960-1279) the art of porcelain had reached its peak. In 1708 the German Physicist Tschirnhausen invented European porcelain, thus ending the Chinese monopoly. The picture above is a teabowl with black glaze and leaf pattern from the Southern Sung Dynasty (1127-1279).

invention of paper money

801

The Chinese invented paper money in the 9th century AD. Its original name was 'flying money' because it was so light it could blow out of one's hand. As exchange certificates used by merchants, paper money was quickly adopted by the government for forwarding tax payments. In 1024, the Song government took over the printing of paper money and used it as a medium of exchange backed by deposited "cash" (a Chinese term for metal coins). The first Muslim bankers used a checking system by the 1200's, followed by Italian bankers in the 1400's. Paper money is still the most common form of currency around the world.

invention of gunpowder

850 ad

Ancient alchemists in China spent centuries trying to discover an elixir of life that would render the user immortal. One important ingredient in many of the failed elixirs was saltpeter, also known as potassium nitrate.

During the Tang Dynasty, around 850 A.D., an enterprising alchemist (whose name has been lost to history) mixed 75 parts saltpeter with 15 parts charcoal and 10 parts sulfur. This mixture had no discernable life-lengthening properties, but it did explode with a flash and a bang when exposed to an open flame. According to a text from that era, "smoke and flames result, so that [the alchemists'] hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down."

Liao Dynasty

907 AD

he Liao Dynasty was an empire in East Asia that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. t was founded by the Yelü clan (耶律 Yēlǜ, Khitan: Jalut, Jælut) of the Khitan people in the same year as Tang Dynasty collapsed (907), even though its first ruler, Yelü Abaoji, did not declare an era name until 916. Although it was originally known as the Empire of the Khitan, the Emperor Yelü Ruan officially adopted the name "Liao". The name "Liao" was dropped in 983, but readopted in 1066. Another name for China in English, Cathay, is derived from the name Khitan.

Song Dynasties

960 ad

Many ways of living and acting that Westerners now see as most thoroughly “Chinese,” or even characteristically East Asian, did not appear before the Song.
The Chinese, we know, are rice eaters and tea drinkers; but most Chinese in the Tang and before at wheat and millet and drank wine, in that respect looking perhaps more “Western” than “Eastern”; rice and tea became dominant food and drink in the Song.
Chinese women, we may know, bound their feet; but they did not bind them until the Song.
Even the “Chinese” roof with its turned-up corners is by origin a Song Chinese roof
China’s population, we know, is huge, and tends to “explode”; its first explosion occurred in the Song.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 AD

The Yuan dynasty was collapsed in the rivalry among the Mongo imperial heirs, natural disasters, and numerous peasants uprising. With its capital first at Nanjing which means Southern Capital) and later at Beijing (or Northern Capital), the Ming reached the zenith of power during the first quarter of the fifteenth century.

Ming Dynasty

1368 ad

Re-establishment of rule by Han ruling house; Capitals: Nanjing and Beijing

Qing Dynasty

1644 AD

Qing Dynasty, with its captial Beijing, was the last ruling of China from 1644 to 1912. Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation.

The Eight-Power Allied Forces Invaded China

1900

The Eight-Power Allied Forces (aggressive troops sent by Britain, the United States, Germany, France, Tsarist Russia, Japan, Italy and Austria in 1900, to suppress the anti-imperialist Yihetuan Movement) invaded China and forced the Qing court to sign the International Protocol of 1901 in the ninth lunar month of 1901 with 11 countries, which turned China into a semi-colonial and -feudalist society.

The Revolution of 1911

1911

The Revolution of 1911, the Chinese bourgeois democratic revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, led to the founding of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912, and the fall of the Qing Dynasty on February 12, 1912, ending the 2,000-year-old feudalist society in China.

Republic Period

1912

Capitals: Beijing, Wuhan, Nanjing.

The founding of the Communist Party of China

1921

The founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC) on July 1, 1921, opened a new chapter in the Chinese revolution.

The Northern Expeditionary War

1926

The Northern Expeditionary War in 1926 dealt a heavy blow to the reactionary rule of the Northern Warlords and the imperialist powers in China.

The Nanchang Uprising

1927

The Nanchang Uprising, which occurred on August 1, 1927, marked the beginning of the CPC-led armed revolution against the Kuomintang regime.

Mao Zedong Elected

1935

The CPC Central Committee Political Bureau held an enlarged meeting in Zunyi, southwestern Guizhou Province, from January 15- 17, 1935. The meeting elected Mao Zedong a member of the Political Bureau Standing Committee and established Mao's leading position in both the Red Army and the Party Central Committee. The meeting saved the Party, the Red Army and the Chinese Revolution at a critical juncture.

The War of Resistance Against Japan

1937

The War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45) was the first time that China won a complete victory in the fight against foreign invasion in its modern history

The CPC held its Seventh National Congress

1945

The CPC held its Seventh National Congress in 1945, which made Mao Zedong Thought the guiding theory for the Party.

People's Republic of China

1949

Capital: Beijing.
This includes China today.

The War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea

1950

CPC put forward the general line for the country's transition to socialism

1952

China accomplished the socialist transformation.

1956

China exploded its first A-bomb

1964

China exploded its first H-bomb

1967

China launched its first satellite

1970