1. George Washington

April 30 1789 - March 4 1797

2. John Adams

March 4 1797 - March 4 1801

3. Thomas Jefferson

March 4 1801 - March 4 1809

4. James Madison

March 4 1809 - March 4 1817

5. James Monroe

March 4 1817 - March 4 1825

6. John Quincy Adams

March 4 1825 - March 4 1829

7. Andrew Jackson

March 4 1829 - March 4 1837

8. Martin Van Buren

March 4 1837 - March 4 1841

9. William Henry Harrison

March 4 1841 - April 4 1841

10. John Tyler

April 4 1841 - March 4 1845

11. James K. Polk

March 4 1845 - March 4 1849

12. Zachary Taylor

March 4 1849 - July 9 1850

13. Millard Filmore

July 9 1850 - March 4 1853

14. Franklin Pierce

March 4 1853 - March 4 1857

15. James Buchanan

March 4 1857 - March 4 1861

16. Abraham Lincoln

March 4 1861 - April 15 1865

17. Andrew Johnson

April 15 1865 - March 4 1869

18. Ulysses S. Grant

March 4 1869 - March 4 1877

Grant Defeats Seymour for presidency (1868)
Grant defeats Greely (1872)

19. Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4 1877 - March 4 1881

Hayes defeats Tilden (1876)

20. James A. Garfield

March 4 1881 - September 19 1881

Garfield defeats Hancock for presidency
Shot by Charles J. Guiteau

21. Chester A. Arthur

September 19 1881 - March 4 1885

Assumes presidency after Garfield's assasination

22. Grover Cleveland

March 4 1885 - March 4 1889

Cleveland defeats Blaine for presidency

23. Benjamin Harrison

March 4 1889 - March 4 1893

Harrison defeats Cleveland for presidency

24. Grover Cleveland

March 4 1893 - March 4 1897

Cleveland defeats Harrison and Weaver to regain presidency

23. William McKinley

March 4 1897 - September 14 1901

McKinley defeat Bryan for presidency

26. Theodore Roosevelt

September 14 1901 - March 4 1909

27. William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909 - March 4, 1913

28. Woodrow Wilson

March 4, 1913 - March 4, 1921

30. Warren G. Harding

March 4, 1921 - August 2, 1923

30. Calvin Coolidge

August 2, 1923 - March 4, 1929

31. Herbert Hoover

March 4, 1929 - March 4, 1933

32. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 - April 12, 1945

Events of the Era

Judiciary Act of 1789


Organized the Supreme Court, with a chief Justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts and established the office of attorney general

Funding at par/ assumption


Federal government would pay off its debts at face value, plus accumulated interest (about $54 million)/ the state debts could be regarded as a proper national obligation, for they had been incurred during the war for independence

Excise Tax


Hamilton sought additional revenue through excise tax, a tax most notable on whiskey

Bill of Rights


1st ten ammendments of the Constitution
1:Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause; freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; right to petition
2:Militia (United States), Sovereign state, Right to keep and bear arms.
3:Protection from quartering of troops
4:Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
5:due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, eminent domain
6:Trial by jury and rights of the accused; Confrontation Clause, speedy trial, public trial, right to counsel
7:Civil trial by jury
8:Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.
9:Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Constitution
10:Powers of States and people

National Bank Established

February 25 1791

A compromise made between the Federalists and Antifederalists; a national bank would be established if the capitol of the U.S. was moved to the South

Proclamation of Neutrality

April 22 1793

Washington knew that the U.S. was militarily and economically weak, so he decided the U.S. should remain neutral in foreign affairs in order to avoid war.

Whiskey Rebellion

July 1794

Washington called upon the federal militia in order to put an end to the unnecessary rebellion of Pennsylvania farmers who refused to pay the excise tax on Whiskey. (tax instituted in 1791)

Jay's Treaty

November 19 1794

British would retreat from Western America forts within 2 years, stop seizing American trade ships, and stop “impressing” soldiers to join the British Navy, in return, America would pay all debts to England

Treaty of Greenville

August 3 1795

After the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the indian confederacy ceded up cast tracts of the Old Northwest in exchange they received a lump-sum payment of $20,00 and an annual annuity of $9,000 and the right to hunt on the ceded land; gained recognition of their sovereign status

Pinckney's Treaty

October 27 1795

Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to negotiate with Spain in order for the U.S. to gain shipping and trading rights on the Mississippi River, In return, Spain gained legal rights inside the U.S.

Washington's Farewell Adress


Washington strongly advised agianst "permanent alliances"

XYZ Affair

October 1797

Adams sent representatives to France in order to negotiate a treaty to establish good relations and peaceful trade within the two countries; however, French Prime Minster, Talleyrand, refused unless the U.S. would pay a $250,000 bribe and loan $10 million to France; angered at this notion, Adams doubled the size of the army and created 40 new war ships, resulting in an undeclared naval war with France; many Americans urged Adam to declare a war with France, but he refused since he knew if America was to go to war, they would lose and be greatly in debt

Alien and Sedition Acts


Congress passed this law with gave the president power to deport foreigners which he considered “dangerous”. This also restricted anyone to write, speak, or publish criticisms of the government that he found to be “malicious and scandalous”

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798 - 1799

In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Adams and Madison declared a resolution; this allowed the states the right to judge whether or not the federal laws were unconstitutional; If these laws were unconstitutional, the states could then nullify and overturn them

Revoltuion of 1800


The election of 1800 was against the 2 parties, Republican Jefferson and Federalists Adams, after much debate, Jefferson was rewarded victory; It's called this because it produced the first orderly transfer of power from one party to another- without violence, a success of the political system

Convention of 1800( Treaty of Mortefontaine)


However Adams was not the only one against a war with France. Talleyrand also decided that a war was not worth it and agreed to the Treaty of Mortefontaine, restoring the relationship between France and America; gave French $20 million in damages as alimony

Judiciary Act of 1801 and the Midnight Judges


act under which President Adams appointed as many federalist judges as he could before Thomas Jefferson took office

Marbury vs Madison


Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution, the decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress

Louisiana Purchase

April 30 1803

Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon for $15 million; Napoleon gave up his empire in North America, the U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Corps of Discovery

1804 - 1806

Led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clart, sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory and find a water route to the Pacific; Louis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West's flora, fauna, and native populations, their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the west

Pike's Expedition

1805 - 1807

Zebulon Pike explored the Southern part of the Louisiana Territory

The Chesapeake Affair


American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters, in response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake and as a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology

War Hawks


Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain, they had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand

Embargo Act

1807 - March 1 1809

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain, the act slowed the economy of New England and the south

Non-Intercourse Act

March 1 1809 - 1810

Replaced the Embargo of 1807; unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain; it had very little impact since Britain and France were America's biggest consumers

Macon's Bill No 2.


Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first, France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain

Fletcher vs Peck


When a Georgia legislature repealed a fradulant land grant that had been made by a previous legislature, the Supreme Court, led by Marshall, ruled that the initial grant, though illegitimately obtained, was a contract and that the Constitution forbids state laws impairing contracts; the case asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws that conflict with the federal Constitution

Hartford Convention

1814 - 1815

Meeting held by New England Federalists during the last days of the War of 1812, to discuss greivances and draft a list of demands; although a minority of delegates discussed secession, their final report only requested financial assistance for lost trade and a constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress to impose embargos, admit new states, or declare war; delivered to Washington as the rest of the nation celebrated the victory in New Orleans, the resolutions were viewed as petty at best, and treasonous at worst, signalling the end of the Federalist party

Second Bank of the US formed


Following Clay's American System

Tariff of 1816


When British manufacturers attempted to sell surplus goods in the United States at below-cost prices, Congress stepped in and passed this tariff to protect America's infant industries; the first protective tariff in American history.

Rush-Bagot Agreement


agreement between Britain and America, severely limiting naval armament on the Great Lakes, leading to better relations between the United States and British Canada

Era of Good Feelings

1817 - 1825

Term used to describe the administrations of James Monroe, a period of tranquility, nationalism, and prosperity.

Eerie Canal

July 4 1817 - October 26 1825

Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York pproposed a canal; in those early days, it was often sarcastically referred to as "Clinton's Big Ditch"; When finally completed, it was the engineering marvel of its day; it included 18 aqueducts to carry the canal over ravines and rivers, and 83 locks, with a rise of 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie; it was 4 feet deep and 40 feet wide, and floated boats carrying 30 tons of freight

Anglo-American Convention/ Treaty of 1818


Pact with Britain that permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, fixed the northern limits of Louisiana along the 49th parallel, and provided for a joint occupation of the Oregon terrritory

Dartmouth College vs Woodward


When the New Hampshire state legislature attempted to change the charter granted to Dartmouth college by King George III, the college, represented by Daniel Webster, appealed to the Supreme Court who ruled that the original charter must stand; Marshall argued that the Constitution protected contracts against state encroachments

McCulloch vs Maryland


Suit involving an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by taxing its banknotes; the Supreme Court, led by John Marshall, declared that the bank was constitutional, thus strengthening the power of the federal government at the expense of the states

Tallmadge amendment


Amendment stipulating that no more slaves should be brought into Missouri and providing for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there; infuriated slaveholding southerners who were locked in a battle with the free North over control of the West; the amendment was eventually defeated in the Senate, but still veiwed by the South as a threat to sectional balance.

Florida Purchase Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)


Treaty signed after Andrew Jackson's attack on Florida; Spain ceded Florida, as well as any claims on Oregon, in return for America's abandonment of claims on Texas; set the western boundary of Louisiana along the Rockies to the 42nd parallel

Panic of 1819


National economic crisis brought on, in part, by over speculation in frontier lands; lasting for several years, it dampened post-war nationalistic fervor and sowed the seeds of Jacksonian democracy among the heavily affected poorer classes.

New England missionaries arrive in Hawaii


Land Act of 1820


Act authorizing buyers to purchase 80 acres of land in the West at $1.25 per acre; cheap acreage was one of the demands made by the West, along with cheap transportation and banking.

Missouri Compomise


Agreement under which Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine, previously part of Massachusetts, was admitted as a separate, free, state, thus maintaining the balance between the North and South.

Cohens vs Virginia


Supreme court case in which the Court, led by John Marshall, upheld the conviction of persons found guilty by the state of Virginia of illegally selling lottery tickets; while technically a "victory" for Virginia, the case strongly emphasized the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts

Monroe Doctrine

December 2 1823

Warning to the Europeans with two man policies, non-colonization and non-intervention

Gibbons vs Ogden


Supreme court case which ruled that the Constitution had conferred the control of interstate commerce on Congress alone; known as the "steamboat case", it provided another example of federal power upheld at the expense of states' rights

Russo-American Treaty


treaty which set the Russian-American boundary at the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle (54°40′), ending Russia's southward push in North America.

Kansas-Nebraska Act


Act promoted by Senator Stephen Douglas that created two territories, with the issue of slavery to be settled by popular sovereignty; contradicted the Missouri Compromise of 1820, angering northerners and hastening the Civil War

Bleeding Kansas

1856 - 1860

A sequence of violent events involving free-soilers and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent

Sumner beaten by Brooks

May 22 1856

Following an impassioned anti-slavery speech by Sumner, the senator from Massachusetts, Brooks, a hot tempered southern congressman, insulted by the condemnation of the proslavery segment and insults about his home state of South Carolina, attacked the Massachusetts senator with his cane, beating him unconscious; the event polarized both sides

Lecompton Constitution


Constitution for statehood devised by proslavery forces in Kansas; only allowed people to vote for theconstitution with slavery or without, not for against the constitution as a whole; if they voted against slavery, a provision of the constitution protected slaveowners already in Kansas; free-soilers boycotted the polls and the constitution was approved with slavery; although supported by President Buchanan, Senator Douglas fought for a compromise that submitted the constitution for a revote

Dred Scott v Sanford


Supreme Court case in which a black slave sued for freedom based on his residence on free soil, as he had lived with his master for five years on Illinois and Wisconsin territory; the court ruled that as he was a slave and not a citizen, he could not sue in federal court; the court then went further and ruled that because a slave was property, he or she could be taken into any territory and help legally, and further stated that Congress had no power to ban slavery in the territories

Tariff and Panic of 1857


Tariff which had reduced duties significantly, a response to pressure from the south, which dramatically affected the north; Financial crisis resulting from inflation caused by the inpouring of California gold, speculation in land and railroads, and overstimulation of the growing of grain to meet the demands of the Crimean War; the north was most hardest hit by the panic, with the cotton-growing southern remaining stable

Pikes Peak gold rush begin's


Lincoln-Douglas debates

August 1858 - October 1858

A series of debates between these two senatorial candidates; the most significant issue of the debates was slavery, with Douglas placing his faith in popular sovereignty, even though the Supreme Court had decreed against it; although Douglas won the election, the debates brought Lincoln into the public spotlight

Harpers Ferry


Attack led by John Brown; after securing support from northern abolitionists, he seized a federal arsenal, killing seven people; he had believed that he would be joined by slaves, but they were largely unaware of his plan, and failed to rise up; he and his followers were quickly captured and convicted of murder and treason, for which he was executed; led to further dissension between the north, who were infuriated by his execution and the south, who protested his martyrdom

South Carolina secedes from the Union


Due to Lincoln's victory in the presidential elections, South Carolina secedes

Confederate States of America

1861 - 1865

South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas secede from the Union and form the Confederacy

Crittenden Compromise


Constitutional amendments intended to appease the south during the secession crisis; would have given federal protection to slavery in all territories south of the 36/30 line; rejected by Lincoln, destroying any hope of compromise

Writ of Habeas Corpus suspended


A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody; this right was suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War in order to allow anti-Unionists to be summarily arrested; one example of wartime limitiations on personal liberties and the arbitrary power exercised by the Lincoln administration

Morill Tariff Act


Tariff passed in 1861, increasing duties 5 to 10 percent in order to cover the cost of the war; the tariff also provided protection for the prosperous manufacturers who were affected by the newly established income tax.

Homestead Act


Allowed folks to get as much as 160 acres of land in return for living on it for five years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30.00. Or, it allowed folks to get land after only six month’s residence for $1.25 an acre;

Congress authorizes transcontinental railroad


Transcontinental railroad spanning from East to West coast to be built in the north

National Banking System


Authorized by Congress in 1863, it was designed to stimulate the sale of government bonds and establish a standard bank-note currency; the first attempt at a unified banking network since the Bank of the United States; eventually became the Federal Reserve System

10% Plan


Lincoln's plan for the restoration of the Union; a state could be reintegrated when 10 percent of the voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken an oath of allegience and pledged to abide by emancipation; although the plan angered many Republicans, who believed that the South should be readmitted as "conquered provinces", President Johnson largely followed Lincoln's plan, agreeing that the states had never legally seceded from the Union

Wade-Davis Bill


Bill proposed by Republicans who believed that the seceding states had left the Union and forfeited their rights and they feared that Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction would restore the planter aristocracy and the possible re-enslavement of blacks; this bill required 50% of the state's voters to take an oath and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation; vetoed by Lincoln, outraging the Republicans in Congress

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)


Formed to discourage the mistreatment of livestock

National Labor Union

1866 - 1873

amassed an impressive total of 600,000 members, but it only lasted six years; it excluded Chinese and didn’t really try to get Blacks and women to join; It worked for the arbitration of industrial disputes and the eight-hour workday, and won the latter for government workers, but the depression of 1873 knocked it out

National Grange

1867 - 1875

founded by Oliver H. Kelley to improve the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; eventually, it spread to claim over 800,000 members; changed its goals to include the improvement of the collective plight of the farmer; they managed to get Congress to pass a set of regulations known as the Granger Laws, but its influenced faded soon after


1867 - 1877

Act passed by Congress in 1867 that divided the South into five military districts, each commanded by a Union general; laid down stringent conditions for readmission and the construction of state constitutions, including the requirement that the Fourteenth Amendment be ratified and that all former adult male slaves be guaranteed full suffrage

Transcontinental Railroad joins


Joining near Ogden, Utah; in all, the Union Pacific built 1,086 mi. of
track, compared to 689 mi. by the Central Pacific

Fisk and Gould corner the gold market


plot to corner the gold market by getting the treasury to stop selling gold, so they worked directly with president Grant and his brother-in-law; plan failed when the treasury sold gold

Knights of Labor

1869 - 1881

Led by Terence V. Powderly, the Knights won a number of strikes for the eight-hour day;It only barred liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers,bankers, and stockbrokers, and they campaigned for economic and socialreform.

Wyoming Territory grants Women's Suffrage


Standard Oil Company


John D. Rockefeller, master of “horizontal integration,” simply allied with or bought out competitors to monopolize a given market; this method was used to form Standard Oil and control the oil industry by forcing weaker competitors to go bankrupt.

Tweed Scandal


"Boss" Tweed had employed bribery, graft, and fake elections to cheat the city of as much as $200 million; caught by The New York Times, Tilden lead the prosecution of Tweed; Thomas Nast, a cartoonist, drew against Tammany's corruption

Liberal Republicans Revolt


A powerful wave of disgust at Grant’s administration
was building, despite the worst of the scandals not having been
revealed yet, and reformers organized the Liberal Republican Party

Credit Mobilier scandal


The Credit Mobilier, a railroad construction company that paid
itself huge sums of money for small railroad construction; a New York newspaper finally busted it; the company had given some of its stock to the congressmen and the Vice President himself was shown to have accepted 20 shares of stock.

Panic of 1873


Caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects; essentially, the causes of the panic were the same old ones that’d caused recessions every 20 years that century: (1)
over-speculation and (2) too-easy credit.

Chautauqua Education Movement


To partially help Adults who couldn't attend school; It included public lectures to many people by famous writers and
extensive at-home studies.

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)


Leaders included Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation who literally wielded a hatchet and hacked up bars.

Civil Rights Act of 1875


Created to help the Blacks in the South, but it was mostly declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1883 Civil Rights cases.

Whiskey Ring scandal


Whiskey Ring had robbed the Treasury of millions of dollars, and when Grant’s own private secretary was shown to be one of the criminals, Grant retracted his earlier statement of “Let no guilty man escape.”

Hayes-Tilden election standoff

1876 - 1877

The election was very close, with Tilden getting 184 votes out of a
needed 185 in the Electoral College, but votes in four states,
Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida, and part of Oregon, were unsure and disputed; the disputed states had sent in two sets of returns, one Democrat, one Republican

Compromise of 1877 (Electoral Count Act)


Set up an electoral commission that consisted of 15 men selected from the Senate, the House, and the Supreme Court, which would count the votes

The Compromise:
For the North—Hayes would become president if he agreed to
remove troops from the remaining two Southern states where Union troops remained (Louisiana and South Carolina), and also, a bill would subsidize the Texas and Pacific rail line.

For the South—military rule and Reconstruction ended when the military pulled out of the South.

Edison invents electric light


Dumbbell tenement introduced


Cramped living quarters, mainly for immigrants, which put several families on a floor with shared bathrooms and living rooms; an air shaft provided the only fresh air, creating a dumbbell shape

Booker T Washington heads the Tuskagee Institute


He taught the students useful skills and trades, however, he avoided the issue of social equality; he believed in Blacks helping themselves first before gaining more rights.

American Red Cross


Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross

Barnum and Bailey's "Greatest Show on Earth"


The new industrial life allowed for more leisure activities, and circuses took advantage of the new working class

Garfield assassinated

September 19 1881

He was shot in the head by a crazy but disappointed office seeker, Charles J. Guiteau

Chinese Exclusion Act


Barred the Chinese from immigrating, one of the first anti-immigration laws to be passed

Pendleton Acts


The so-called Magna Charta of civil-service reform (awarding of government jobs based on ability, not just because a buddy awarded the job), prohibited financial assessments on jobholders, including lowly scrubwomen, and established a merit system of making appointments to office

Indian Sun Dance Outlawed


Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper in Chicago


The new structures made of steel were taller and more stable, "less is more"

Statue of Liberty erected in New York Harbor


Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame.
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Wabash case


Ruled that states could not regulate interstate commerce, like trains

Haymarket Square bombing


On May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a Knights of Labor meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people; forever associated them with anarchists

Dawes Severalty Act


Dissolved the legal entities of all tribes, but if the Indians behaved the way Whites wanted them to behave (become farmers on reservations), they could receive full U.S. citizenship in 25 years (full citizenship to all Indians was granted in 1924).

Hatch Act


Provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges

American Protective Association (APA) formed


Anti-foreign organization that rose to go against new immigrants; labor leaders were quick to try to stop new immigration, since immigrants were frequently used as strikebreakers

Interstate Commerce Act


Banned rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly (so as not to cheat customers), and also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and banned charging more for a short haul than for a long one; it also set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to enforce this

Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago


The Hull House, teaches children and adults the skills and knowledge that they would need to survive and succeed in America; she won the Nobel Peace Prize in 193; Settlement houses became centers for women’s activism and reform

Samoa crisis with Germany


nearly went to war over whom could build a naval base there

Pan American Conference


James G. Blaine pushed his “Big Sister” policy, which
sought better relations with Latin America, and he presided
over the first Pan-American Conference, held in Washington D.C.

National American Woman Suffrage Association


Organization led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

McKinley Tariff Act


Sherman Anti-Trust Act


Forbade combinations (trusts, pools, interlocking directorates, holding companies) in restraint of trade, without any distinction between “good” and “bad” trusts.

Census Bureau declares Frontier Line ended


"Safety-valve" to the west has been shut off

"Billion Dollar" Congress


Reed finally prevailed in opening the 51st "Billion Dollar" congress, so called for all the expensive legislation that was passed

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

1890 - 1893

The Treasury had to issue gold for the notes that it had paid and according to law, those notes had to be reissued, thus causing a steady drain on gold in the Treasury—the level
alarmingly dropped below $100 million at one point.

Populists party forms


Formed by disgruntled farmers, their main call was for inflation via free coinage of silver; also wanted: a graduated income tax, government regulation of railroads and telegraphs/telephones, direct elections of U.S. senators, a one term limit, initiative and
referendum, a shorter workday, and immigration restriction.

Basketball invented


New Orleans crisis with Italy


Almost fought due to the lynching of 11 talians in New Orleans, but America apologized and paid

Valparaiso crisis with Chile


Almost went to war after the deaths of two American sailors by Chilean mobs, at Valparaiso

Columbian Exposition held in Chicago


Displayed many architectural triumphs.

Depression of 1893


It was the first such panic in the new urban and industrial age, and it caused much outrage and hardships. This completed the almost predictable, every-20-year cycle of panics during the 1800s (panics occurred during 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, and 1893).

Anti-Saloon League formed


Prohibition group

White Planter revolt in Hawaii


With the new McKinley Tariffs, foreign sugar prices rose and American's wanted to offset it by annexing Hawaii; Queen Liliuokalani opposed annexation, so white men revolted and succeeded; Cleveland found the coup to be wrong and delayed annexation

the Great Rapprochement

1893 - 1914

Period of "patting the eagle's head" and friendly relations with the United States

Pribilof Islands dispute with Canada


Argument over seal hunting

"Coxey's Army"


"General" Jacob Coxey marched on Washington with scores of followers and many newspaper reporters, they called for:
relieving unemployment by an inflationary government public works program, an issuance of $500 million in legal tender notes.

Pullman strike


The company was hit hard by the depression and cut wages by about 1/3; led by Eugene Debs, workers struck, sometimes violently; U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney called in federal troops to break up the strike, his rationale: the strike was interfering with the transit of U.S. mail.

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

1894 - 1895

Raised the tariffs

J.P. Morgan loans $65 million


Helped to bail out the federal government

Plessy v Ferguson


Legitimizes "separate but equal" doctrine

American Federation of Labor

1896 - 1900

Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor, which consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence, with the AF of L unifying overall strategy; simply wanted “more,” and sought better wages, hours, and working conditions

Venezuelan boundary crisis with Britain


British Guiana and Venezuela had been disputing their border for many years, but when gold was discovered, the situation worsened; Cleveland devised a new boundary that if Britain did not accept, he threatened war and since the British feared the rise of German power, they could not risk war and chose to appease America, starting an era know as the Great

Dingley Tariff Act


Raised the tariff to 45%!

Hawaii annexed

July 7, 1898

Annexed so that it could use the islands to support Dewey, supposedly

Philippine Commission


Dealt with the Filipinos, our "little brown brothers"

First American Open Door Note


Secretary of State John Hay urged the European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate

Senate ratifies treaty acquiring Philipines


Paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines and the acquisition was highly debate by Anit-imperialists; the treaty was almost not passed, but finally, William Jennings Bryan argued for its passage, saying that the sooner the treaty was passed, the sooner the U.S. could get rid of the Philippines; the treaty passed by only one vote.

Boxer Rebellion


Super-patriotic group known as the “Boxers” started the Boxers’ Rebellion where they revolted and took over the capital of China, Beijing, taking all foreigners hostage, including diplomats.

Gold Standard Act


Second Open Door note


After the Boxer Rebellion, fearing that the European powers would carve China up for good, John Hay officially asked that China not be carved

Foraker Act of Puerto Rico


Gave Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government

United States Steel Corporations


Morgan took Carnegie’s holdings, added others, and launched the United States Steel Corporation, a company that
became the world’s first billion-dollar corporation

Insular Cases


Supreme Court barely ruled that the Constitution did not have full authority on how to deal with the islands (Cuba and Puerto Rico), essentially letting Congress do whatever it wanted with them; basically, the cases said the island residents do not necessarily share the same rights as Americans

Platt Amendment


This amendment said that (1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy, (2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba, and (3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty


Nullified the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain that forbade
the construction by either country of a canal in the Americas without the other’s consent and help

McKinley assassinated

September 14 1901

Newland's Act


Initiated irrigation projects for the western states

Anthracite coal strike


Coalmines of Pennsylvania, and some 140,000 workers demanded a 20% pay increase and the reduction of the workday to nine hours; Finally, after the owners refused to negotiate and the lack of coal
was getting to the freezing schools, hospitals, and factories during
that winter, TR threatened to seize the mines and operate them with federal troops if he had to in order to keep it open and the coal coming to the people

Elkins Act


The ICC, which was inqdequetly doing it job, was supplemented with the Act that fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them

Department of Commerce and Labor


Cabinet position which also established the Bureau of Corporations, which was allowed to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce; it was highly useful in “trust-busting.”

Panamanian revolution against Colombia

November 3 1903

Began with the killing of a Chinese civilian and a donkey, and when Colombia tried to stop it, the U.S., citing an 1846 treaty with Colombia, wouldn’t let the Colombian fleet through.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

November 17 1903

Gave a widened (6x10 mi.) Panamanian zone to the U.S. for $15 million to build the canal

Roosevelt Corollary


Stated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe, thus keeping Europe away and the Monroe Doctrine intact; it said in effect, no one could bully Latin America except the U.S

Northern Security Case


The Supreme Court upheld TR’s antitrust suit and ordered Northern Securities to dissolve

Construction of the Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

In 1904, construction began on the Panama Canal, but at first, problems with landslides and sanitation occurred; the canal was finally finished and opened in 1914, at a cost of $400 million

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)


Indians granted U.S. citizenship


Wars/ Battles

Battles with Natives

1790 - 1794

British wanted to maintain Indian bufferstates to keep their fur trades in the Great Lakes region and supplied weapons to the Natives

Battle of Fallen Timbers


The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River

Tripolitan War

1801 - 1805

Pasha of Tripoli declared war on America in 1801 for not paying shipping access and 4 years of intermittent battling ensued; Jefferson sent the navy to force a peace treaty in 1805;

Battle of Tippecanoe


battle between Americans and Native Americans, Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but were defeated by William Henry Harrison; also ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi and led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812

War of 1812

June 1 1812 - December 24 1814

An especially ill-fought and divisive war; with no burning national anger, the American people were divided and apathetic towards the war; the army was ill-trained, ill-disciplined, and scattered, and the offensive strategy was poorly conceived; nevertheless, despite the unimpressive outcome, Americans emerged front the war with a renewed sense of nationalism

American Invasions of Canada fail

July 1812 - 1813

Battle of the Thames

October 1813

Forced to retreat, the British were overtaken by General Harrison's army and beaten

British burn down the Captiol and the Whitehouse/ Star Spangled Banner

August 1814

British landed in the Chesapeake and advanced rapidly on Washington, militia at Bladensburg quickly dispursed; In Baltimore, British attacked Fort McHenry but could not capture it, inspiring Francis Scott Key's "Star Spangled Banner"

Battle of Plattsburgh

September 11, 1814

Thomas Macdonough led a fleet against the British, both sides faced massive losses, but Macdonough managed to snatch victory from the fangs of defeat

Treaty of Ghent

December 24 1814

Essentially an armistice, as both sides agreed to stop fighting and restore conquered territory; despite sweeping demands made by the British in the early phases of negoatiation, defeats in New York and Baltimore, as well as increasing war-weariness, made Britain more willing to compromise

Battle of New Orleans

January 8 1815

Overconfident British led a frontal assault and lost the battle, the British lost over 2000 men, while Jackson lost 70; ended two weeks after the Treat of Ghent

Trent Affair


When a Union warship stopped a British mail steamer and forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe, the incident caused outrage and war preparations in Britain but, ultimately, passions cooled and Lincoln released the Confederate prisoners.

Fort Sumter fired upon

April 12 1861

Small federal fort located in the Charleston harbor; one of the few remaining southern forts not yet seized by Confederate forces; when Lincoln sent a naval force carrying provisions, the South Carolinians opened fire on the fort and forced its eventual surrender; rallied the Union cause, and marked the start of the Civil War as Lincoln issued a call for troops.

First Battle of the Bull Run

July 12 1861

The Union expected the war to be over in 90 days, but after being badly defeated by the Confederacy, the Union perspective on the war changed

McClellan's Penninsula Campaign


Moved toward the Confederate capital with 100,000 men; took a month to capture Yorktown and waited for reinforcement before marching on Richmond


1862 - 1864

Confederate commerce-raider built in Britain; left British docks unarmed but picked up guns and a British crew elsewhere; captured over sixty vessels, forcing the North to divert naval strength to combat its attacks; eventually destroyed by a Union cruiser off the coast of France; in order to stay neutral, Britain seized another ship being built for the South, but others remained in use, crippling the American merchant marine

Seven Day's Battle

June 26 1862 - July 2 1862

General Lee launched a counterattack that slowly drove McClellan back, forcing the Union to abandon the campaign

Union enacts conscription


Although at the start volunteers completely manned the army, it began to slacken in 1863; a nationwide conscription was placed, however, the rich could hire someone to take their place or purchase an exemption for $300

Sand Creek Massacre


Colonel J.M. Chivington’s militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood—Indians who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless.

Battle of the Little Bighorn


Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota
(sacred Sioux land), and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux
reservation in search of gold, causing Sitting Bull and the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custer’s Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process

Nez Pierce Indian War


Revolted when gold seekers made the government shrink their reservation by 90%, and after a tortuous battle, Chief Joseph finally surrendered his band after a long trek across the Continental Divide toward Canada; he buried his hatchet and gave his famous speech saying, “From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”

Battle of Wounded Knee


This battle marks the end of the Indian Wars as by then the
Indians were all either on reservations or dead.

Cuban's revolt against Spain


Citing years of misrule, and the Cubans torched their sugar cane fields in hopes that such destruction would either make Spain leave or America interfere; Sure enough, America supported Cuba, and the situation worsened when Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler came to Cuba to crush the revolt and ended up putting many civilians into concentration camps that were terrible and killed many

Maine expolosion


Explosion in Havana harbor of an American warship; America accused Spanish of attacking them, while it really was caused by internal issues; sparked the public into war with Spain

Teller Amendment

April 20 1898

Proclaimed that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom and not conquer it.

Spanish American War

April 25 1898 - August 25 1898

War against Spain, fought in Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, among other Spanish holdings

Dewey's victory at Manila Bay

August 13 1898

Dewey had naval control, but he could not storm the islands and its fortresses, so he had to wait for reinforcements, but meanwhile, other nations were moving their ships into Manila Harbor to protect their men; Finally, on August 13, 1898, American troops arrived and captured Manila, collaborating with Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to overthrow the Spanish rulers.

Treaty of Paris

December 10, 1898

America got Guam and Puerto Rico and freed Cuba, the Philippines required $20 million

Aguinaldo rebels against the U.S.

February 4 1899 - 1901

Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the
Spanish-American War, but when they didn’t they revolted against
the U.S.

US troops leave Cuba


Territories and States

Hawaii recieves full territorial status



Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom's Cabin


Dismayed by the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote this novel to illustrate the inhumanity of slavery, especially the splitting of families; a huge success, it had a profound effect on northerners, many of whom who would go on to fight in the Civil War.

Hinton R. Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South


Written by Hinton R. Helper, it attempted to prove that non-slaveholding whites suffered the most from slavery; fueled the fears of southern slaveholders that the non-slaveholding majority would not support them.

Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species


Stated his theory of evolution and natural selection and its effects on the development of species; greatly contested by the church; later influenced ideas of social darwinism and imperial darwinism

Alfred Thayer Mahan’s: The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783,


Argued that every successful world power once held a great navy. This book helped start a naval race among the great powers and moved the U.S. to naval supremacy. It motivated the U.S. to look to expanding overseas.