The Pheonicians

1200 BCE - 539 BCE

The Phoenicians were Semitic civilizations that arose in Lebanon, and migrated and settled the coastlines of North Africa. Their legacy provided advancements in navigation and ship building as well as the foundations for our alphabet.

The Greeks

750 BCE - 146 BCE

Peoples who colonized the Mediterranean in hundred of small city states. Each city -state remained "fiercely independent" from one another. From this emerged three larger city states in particular; Sparta, Corinth and Athens. Athens revolutionized politics and government by laying foundations for modern day democracy.


509 BCE - 27 BCE

After settling near the Tibris River, the people of Rome fell subject to Etruscan rule. After revolting, the formed the Republic in order to never let power fall into the wrong hands. In 27 BCE, the republic fell due to various factors and eventually became an Empire under the rule of Augustus. The Roman Republic vastly impacted government as we know it as well as, it led to modern-day architectural innovations.


500 BCE - 330 BCE

The Persian Empire was one of the first of the classical era empires to rise. The Persians were Indo-European peoples that lay on the Iranian plateau. It was the Empire of first of it's kind to administer so efficiently and effectively as it did. The Persians laid down much of the base work for Empires after it's time.

Greco-Persian Wars

490 BCE - 479 BCE

Series of collisions between the Greeks and the Persians. In this, the usually independent city states united to ward of Persia. This gave birth to the notion of an East/West divide; the Greeks symbolized freedom while Persia represented despotism. Following this was Athens's Golden Age.

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

During Athens's Golden Age, Athenians attempted solidify their leadership/dominance over fellow city-states, this tyranny however, struck an intense Civil War among the Greek polis. This subsequently weakened them, and expanded all resources leaving Greeks vulnerable to outside invaders.

Alexander the Great

356 BCE - 323 BCE

One of the greatest leaders known to mankind, born Macedonian and the son of Phillip the II he led a 10 year conquest against Persia. He not only, succeeded in doing so, but also helped found various empires as well as spread Greek culture internationally.

Macedonian Conquest of Greece

338 BCE

Under the rule of Phillip II a Macedonian Ruler, the once independent Greek city states were all unified. This subsequently led to the diffusion of Greek culture worldwide.

Hellenistic Era

323 BCE - 30 BCE

The death of Alexander the Great marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era. The era was important because during this time, Greek influence was at its peak.

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 AD

The Roman Empire formed after the fall of the Republic in 27 AD, Under its first Emperor Augustus. It went on longer until the Empire divided and the West eventually crumbled (ca. 476 AD). The Empire provided Western Culture with many cultural and technological advancements including the calender, census, plumbing, sanitation and roads!