Napoleon invades Ottoman Empire (Egypt) in hopes to cripple British trade. Was a failed invasion.
Constitution of Year VIII
Napoleon then becomes the First Consul of France: Napoleon. This ended the revolution in France.
Concordat of 1801
Required refractory clergy and those who had accepted the revolution to resign. Declared that, "Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of French citizens." Church was officially under the power of the government. Religious freedom resulted.
Treaty of Amiens
Brought peace to Europe. (General amnesty, men employed from all political factions, highly centralized administration, secret police, and codified a law that spread everywhere)
A system that was meant to cut off British trade, but failed and resulted in economic warfare. Napoleon cut off countries from trading with Britain but a black market was created and they traded with Britain anyway.
People of Madrid wanted to kick Napoleon's brother off the throne.
Battle of Nations
Where Napoleon was defeated by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain. Napoleon got exiled to Elba.
Congress of Vienna
September 1814 - November 1815
Main goals were to prevent another Napoleon from rising, and to keep the peace throughout Europe. Created "buffer" states (Netherlands, Kingdom of Sardinia, German Confederation States, Spain, Poland). Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire.
The time period of Napoleon's return back to power after his exile to Elba.
Result of failed Holy Alliance. The alliance of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain. Their goals were to stop the destruction and keep a balance of power. Achieved a framework.
Johann Gotfried Herder
Associated Romantics with Gothic literature.
Believed the individual developed good and happy lives un corrupted by society in his novel, Emile. Also believed children and adults should have a distinct difference. Kids should naturally grow.
Two greatest works: "The Critique of Pure Reason" and "The Critique of Practical Reason". Wanted to preserve freedom. Believes people perceive world through own mental categories. Categorial Imperative: inner command to act in a situation as anybody else would.
Leader was John Wesley. Wanted a possibility of Christian perfection in life. Religious tolerance?
Reaction against much of the thoughts of the Enlightenment thinkers. Their foundation was emotion and imagination.
Sturm and Drang Movement
Literally translated as storm and stress. It rejected the influence of French rationalism throughout German literature.
Viscount Francois Rene de Chateaubriand
Argued that religion should have passion.
Disliked by Romantics. "Don Juan".
Johann Wolfgang con Goethe
"Faust". Dramatic poem about a guy who makes a pact with the devil and then uses his knowledge to do good.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Master of Gothic poems. "The Rime of the Ancient Manner". Poetry was highest of human acts.
Caspar David Friedrich
"Polar Sea". Used art to portray or arouse emotion.
First to declare himself a Romantic. !
August Wilhelm von Schlegel
Praised old Romantic literature in his "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature".
"Ode on Intimations of Immortality". Ode to Coleridge when Coleridge was suffering. Thought childhood was a period of creative imagination.