Napoleon invades Ottoman Empire (Egypt) in hopes to cripple British trade. Was a failed invasion.
Constitution of Year VIII
Napoleon then becomes the First Consul of France: Napoleon. This ended the revolution in France.
Concordat of 1801
Required refractory clergy and those who had accepted the revolution to resign. Declared that, "Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of French citizens." Church was officially under the power of the government. Religious freedom resulted.
Treaty of Amiens
Brought peace to Europe. (General amnesty, men employed from all political factions, highly centralized administration, secret police, and codified a law that spread everywhere)
Emperor of France
After a bomb attack, Napoleon instituted a constitution that made him the first emperor of France. Crowned himself while Pope Pius VI watched.
Maurice de Talleyard-Perigord
After attack of Jacobins, Talleyard told Napoleon it was a crime because it provoked foreign opposition.
A code that safeguarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges. This code also unified law across France.
Battle of Trafalgar
Result of William Pitt the Younger forming a third coalition (Austria, England, and Russia) against Napoleon's attempts at attacking Britain over seas. War resulted in official domination over the seas for Britain.
Treaty of Pressburg
Napoleon controlled everything north of Rome.
A system that was meant to cut off British trade, but failed and resulted in economic warfare. Napoleon cut off countries from trading with Britain but a black market was created and they traded with Britain anyway.
Treaty of Tilsit
Tsar Alexander and Napoleon signed upon a raft to an agreement of Napoleon gaining half of Prussia's territory. (Prussia supported France openly, and Russia supported France secretly)
Revolt in Madrid
People of Madrid wanted to kick Napoleon's brother off the throne.
Battle of Nations
Where Napoleon was defeated by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain. Napoleon got exiled to Elba.
Congress of Vienna
September 1814 - November 1815
Main goals were to prevent another Napoleon from rising, and to keep the peace throughout Europe. Created "buffer" states (Netherlands, Kingdom of Sardinia, German Confederation States, Spain, Poland). Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire.
The time period of Napoleon's return back to power after his exile to Elba.
Battle of Waterloo
June 18, 1815
Napoleons official defeat at Waterloo by Wellington. He was then exiled to Saint Helena.
November 20, 1815
Result of failed Holy Alliance. The alliance of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain. Their goals were to stop the destruction and keep a balance of power. Achieved a framework.
Johann Gotfried Herder
Associated Romantics with Gothic literature.
Believed the individual developed good and happy lives un corrupted by society in his novel, Emile. Also believed children and adults should have a distinct difference. Kids should naturally grow.
Two greatest works: "The Critique of Pure Reason" and "The Critique of Practical Reason". Wanted to preserve freedom. Believes people perceive world through own mental categories. Categorial Imperative: inner command to act in a situation as anybody else would.
Leader was John Wesley. Wanted a possibility of Christian perfection in life. Religious tolerance?
Reaction against much of the thoughts of the Enlightenment thinkers. Their foundation was emotion and imagination.
Sturm and Drang Movement
Literally translated as storm and stress. It rejected the influence of French rationalism throughout German literature.
Viscount Francois Rene de Chateaubriand
Argued that religion should have passion.
Disliked by Romantics. "Don Juan".
Johann Wolfgang con Goethe
"Faust". Dramatic poem about a guy who makes a pact with the devil and then uses his knowledge to do good.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Master of Gothic poems. "The Rime of the Ancient Manner". Poetry was highest of human acts.
Caspar David Friedrich
"Polar Sea". Used art to portray or arouse emotion.
First to declare himself a Romantic. !
August Wilhelm von Schlegel
Praised old Romantic literature in his "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature".
"Ode on Intimations of Immortality". Ode to Coleridge when Coleridge was suffering. Thought childhood was a period of creative imagination.