Chapters 19 and 20

Main

Liberalism Movement

1700 - 1860

Advocated free trade and often called upon the language used by Adam Smith. wanted constitutional governments, and an economy based on merit and talent.

John Wesley and Methodism

1703 - 1791

Methodism rose as a revolt against deism and rationalism in the Church of England. John Wesley, the founder, while on missionary work in the colony of Georgia met a group of Moravians, and began to worship with them. Preached the role of enthusiastic, emotional experience as part of Christian conversion.

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804

Wrote two greatest philosophical works of the late 18th century. , "The Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) and "The Critique of Practical Reason" (1788). SOught to accept rationalism of Enlightenment and to still preserve a belief in human freedom and immortality.

Neo-Gothic Revival

1740 - 1840

During this time, many medieval churches were restored and new churches were modeled after their medieval forerunners. British Houses of Parliament- built in 1836-1837- was the most famous public building in the Neo-Gothic Style.

Johann Gotfried Herder

1744 - 1803

Went in search of Germany's past to glorify German culture. Revived German folk culture by urging the collection and preservation of distinct German songs and sayings.

Goethe

1749 - 1832

German romantic writer, may be the greatest German writer of modern times. Wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" (1774), which was admired for expression of feeling and living on the outside of polite society. His masterpiece, "Faust" was about a man who made a deal with the devil for more knowledge, and he ended up dedicating his life to the improvement of human beings.

Louis XVIII

1755 - 1824

Appointed by royalists and conservatives, as he agreed to rule France as a constitutional monarch.
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Admiral Horatio Nelson

1758 - 1805

When Napoleon captured Egypt to attack British interests. Nelson destroyed the French fleet at Abukir on August 1, 1798.

J.G. Fichte

1762 - 1814

Known as the father of German nationalism, He promoted an economic system where the entire country was shut off from the rest of the world. Believed in Volksgeist.

Lord Liverpool

1770 - 1828

Troy Prime Minister of England. He sought to protect the interests of the wealthy and landed classes, and enacted the Corn LAws, that created popular unrest throughout England.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

1770 - 1831

German philosopher, and known as one of the most complicated and significant philosophes in the history of western civilization. Believed all cultures are valuable and all periods in history have been of almost equal value.

The Consulate in France

1799 - 1804

Bourgeoisie abolished hereditary privileges in France, and peasants gained land and destroyed the oppressive feudal system.

The Constitution of Year VIII

December 1799

Proposed by the Directory, it divided executive power among 3 Consul, the 1st being given supreme authority. It promoted universal male suffrage and created a complicated system checks and balances.

Concordat of 1801

July 1801

Requires both the refractory clergy ( those who refused to take an oath of loyalty), and those who accepted the revolution to resign. Replacements were approved by the pope, but paid by the state. The Church gave up confiscated property, and the clergy had to swear to loyalty to the state.

Peace of Amiens

1802

Marked the end of the Revolutionary war. The First Consul Napoleon gained enough popularity to begin legal, economic and educational reforms in France.

Reign of Napoleon I

1804 - 1814

After crowing himself as consul for life, he seized a bomb attack on his life, and then used this to make himself emperor. He argued that establishing a dynasty would make the new regime more secure, and further attempts useless.

The Napoleonic Code

1804

Creating a conservative attitude toward women, it also forbid workers associations, fathers were granted control over children and wives, upheld the abolition of birth privileges, and made divorce more difficult for women, all the while creating a unified law throughout France.

Organic Articles 1802

1804

Are Napoleon reconciled with the Church, and without consulting the pope, the Federal government established supremacy of the state over the Church.

Battle of Trafalgar

October 21, 1805

Ended in a British Victory, whose supreme navy defeated both the combined Spanish and French fleets. In it, Lord Nelson was killed.

Milan Decree of 1807

1807

Attempted to stop even Neutral nations from trading with the British in the Continental System.

Treaty of Tilsit

1807

Negotiated by Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I on a raft in the Nieman RIver. In it, Prussia lost half of its territory and Napoleon appointed members of his family to govern his empire- his stepson ruling Italy, and his three brothers and brother-in-law were made Kings of other states.

The Invasion of Russia

1810

After Russia withdrew from the Continental System and prepared for war, Napoleon amassed an army of 600,00 men. THe Russians, using a "scorched-earth" policy, an weather, defeated the French, leaving only 100,00 to return.

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Wars of Liberation

1813 - 1815

In volved Spanish (Guerilla rebelled), aided by Britain and Sir Arthur Wellsey, and Austria, who declared war on France in 1809, ho lost at the Battle of Wagram. The Peace of Schonbrunn caused Austria to lose much territory and 3.5 million subjects. Napoleon divorced Josephine and married 18 year old Austrian archduchess, the daughter of Emperor Francis I

The Charter

1814

Described the powers if government in France that included a hereditary monarch and a bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Peers (upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies (property qualifications).

Treaty of Chaumont

March 9, 1814

Called for a restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of France, and Britain,, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed the Quadruple alliance for twenty years to preserve the settlement.

White Terror

1815

In the months following Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, some royalists carried out atrocities against former revolutionary leaders and supporters of Napoleon.

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1830

a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.

The Congress System

1815 - 1856

Set out in the Congress of Vienna, this was the idea that countries would meet to discuss differences instead of immediately go to war. Peace lasts until the 20th century.

Burschenschaften

1815 - 1819

A student group from a universities in Germany, and after removing themselves from the system. Followed by the Carlsbad Decrees which dissolved the group.
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Final Act

9 June 1815

Limited the Issues that the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Baden could discuss. IT also asserted the right of the monarch to resist demands of constitutionalism.

Coercion Acts of 1817

March 1817

After ab unruly mass meeting, Parliament suspended habeas corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings.
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Six Acts

1819

Laws enacted to prevent radical leaders from agitating. It forbade large public meetings, raised the fines of seditious libel, speeded up the trials of political agitators, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited the training of armed groups, and allowed officials to search homes.

Peterloo Massacre

August 16, 1819

In Manchester at Saint Peter's Fields, a militia was ordered by a local magistrate to move upon the audience and eleven people were killed.

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

1820 - 1821

Ferdinand VII ignored the constitution and dissolved the COrtes (parliament). Army officers rebelled and Ferdinand agreed to accept the constitution.

Congress of Verona

1822

Proposed to resolve the situation in Spain, and was intervened by Prussia, Austria, Russia, and France.