Napoleon/ AP Euro Ch. 19/20

Napoleon

Napoleon is born

1769
  • Born in Corsica (not from France)

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

liberal reforms and turmoil lead to Napoleon's gaining of power in France

Napoleon invades Egypt

1798
  • Lord Admiral Nelson (Brit.) defeats the French navy

Consulate established in France

1799 - 1804
  • Napoleon makes peace w/ F. enemies
  • centralized administration
  • suppressed foreign enemies + domestic oppression

Napoleon coup d'etat overthrows the Directory

1799

Napoleon gains power in France

Concordat of 1801

1801
  • Church put under gov't control; clergy receives salary from gov't
  • Organic Articles of 1802 established authority of state over church
  • decreased the privilege of the Catholic Church

Napoleonic Civil Code issued

1804
  • abolished primogeniture and privileges based on birth
  • protection of all forms of property
  • conservative attitude towards labor and women (women lose rights gained during Fr. Rev., discouraged labor unions

Battle of Trafalgar

1805
  • Brit. victory over France and Spain gives Brit. naval power/dominance
  • Death of Admiral Nelson --> tragedy for Britain

Napoleon's invasion of Russia

1812
  • Napoleon's big failure; has to return to France defeated by Russia

Napoleon is exiled to Elba

1814

Congress of Vienna

September 1814 - November 1815
  • restored the Bourbons and the French borders of 1792
  • strengthened the states surrounding France as barriers to French expansion
  • Goals: arrange lasting peace and prevent another dictator to dominate Europe in the way that Napoleon had

Battle of Waterloo

1815
  • Napoleon's final defeat resulting in his abdicating and being exiled to the island of St. Helena

Romanticism

John Wesley (founder of Methodist Church)

1703 - 1791
  • placed emphasis on emotional religious experience
  • opposed deism

Johann Gottfried Herder

1744 - 1803
  • promoted individual cultures over use of a common language and universal institutions

Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel

1770 - 1831
  • thesis, antithesis, synthesis process (ideas form through an evolutionary process involving conflicting sets of ideas)
  • all cultures are important because they contribute to the necessary clash of ideas which allow humankind to develop

Wordsworth

1770 - 1850
  • believed that aging and urban living corrupted imagination and lowered the importance of inner feelings and beauty of nature
  • wrote "Ode on Imitations of Immortality (1803)

Samuel Coleridge

1772 - 1834
  • English poet whose works included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
  • wrote supernatural gothic poems which included such themes as guilt, punishment, redemption, and crimes against nature

John Constable

1776 - 1837
  • was politically conservative; idealized the Middle Ages
  • depicted rural landscapes
  • "Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows"

Lord Byron

1788 - 1824
  • had little sympathy for Romantic views of the imagination
  • rejected old traditions and championed personal liberty
  • considered a rebel among Romantic poets
  • expressed admiration for urban life

Goethe's Faust

1808 - 1832
  • long dramatic poem
  • involves mythology, witchcraft, and redemption

Caspar David Friedrich's "The Polar Sea"

1824

illustrated the power of nature to diminish human creations

Liberalism and Conservatism in the 19th century

Six Acts (Eng.)

1619

1.) forbade large unauthorized public meetings
2.) raised fines for seditious libel
3.) speeded up trials of political agitators
4.) increased newspaper taxes
5.) prohibited training of armed groups
6.) allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties
- example of conservative repression of liberal reformers

Revolution in Haiti

1791 - 1804
  • 1st successful slave rebellion
  • led by Toussaint L'Ouverture
  • Haiti becomes independent of French rule

The Charter (France)

1814
  • constitution written by Louis XVIII guaranteeing: 1.) hereditary monarchy and bicameral legislature elected by the king and the landed classes 2.) most of the rights of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen 3.) religious toleration, but Cath.=official rel. of Fr. 4.) no challenging current owners of land confiscated from the arist. and church

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1850
  • European great powers meet to discuss differences and maintain peace after the Congress of Vienna

Corn Law (Eng.)

1815
  • example of conservatism --> shift power from the masses to the wealthy

Coercion Acts

1817
  • temporarily suspended habeas corpus and extended laws against seditious gatherings
  • example of conservatives trying to repress reformers

Carlsbad Decrees

1819
  • Metternich uses dissolves the Burschenschaften (associations of German liberal university students)

Venezuelan independence -- Simon Bolivar

1819 - 1830
  • South Americans drive away the Spanish
  • shows the dwindling power of the old classic European superpowers in the New World

Greek Revolution

1821
  • "Eastern Question": support the Ottomans (Muslim) to keep the peace or support the Greeks (Christian)?
  • Greece becomes a kingdom

Decembrist Revolution (Russia)

1825
  • 1st revolution in early modern Russian history in which the instigators had specific political goals (wanted to establish constitutional gov't and abolish serfdom)

Serbian Independence

1830

Russia becomes Serbia's formal protector (nationalism; both of Slavic descent)

July Revolution (France)

1830

King Charles X (successor to Louis XVIII) is met w/ popular resistance from both liberals and conservatives when he tries to return France to conservatism --> Charles abdicates and is replaced with Louis Philippe
- end to Bourbon monarchy

Great Reform Bill (Britain)

1832
  • increased the number of people who have the right to vote by over 50%; enfranchised whole sections of the population
  • laid the groundwork for further orderly reforms within the British constitutional system; spared Eng. from the revolutions of 1848
  • indicative of Britain's shift from conservatism to liberalism