Beginnings of a new religion founded by John Wesley. Stressed emotion and heartfelt religion over rationalism.
1770 - 1890
New age in art and literature that spread across Europe. A response to rationalism, romanticism focused on individualism, religion, and emotion.
1770 - 1831
Historical philosopher. Developed theory of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
Critique of Pure Reason
Book by Kant. Kant believed that the sphere of reality through pure reason was limited.
Revolution in Haiti
1791 - 1804
Haiti's revolt against France. First successful colonial assault from Latin America.
Poetry by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Rejected rules of 18th century criticism.
Novel by Schlegel. Attacked prejudices against women.
Consulate in France
1799 - 1804
The Consulate ended the revolution in France.
Peace of Amiens
Truce between France and England. Would not last due to Napoleon's ambitions.
GB declares war on France
British response to Napoleon's developments on the continent.
1804 - March 1814
In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Napoleon rose to power in France and established an empire of his sole rule.
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805
Naval battle where Great Britain demolished the combined Spanish and French naval fleet without losing a single ship. However, Lord Nelson (GB) died in this battle.
Battle at Austerlitz
December 2, 1805
Napoleon defeated combined Austrian and Russian forces. Napoleon now recognized as king of Italy.
Reforms in response to Napoleon. Junker monopoly broken, serfdom abolished.
November 21, 1806
Napoleon forbade importing of English goods across the continent in an attempt to wage economic warfare against Great Britain. This was not successful.
Further attempts from Napoleon at stopping Continental trade with Great Britain.
Treaty of Tilsit
July 7, 1807
Treaty that resulted in Napoleon gaining half of Prussia's territory. Prussia openly and Russia secretly allied with Napoleon.
1808 - 1832
Dramatic poem published by Goethe in two parts. Dives in to emotion and religion.
Napoleon Invades Spain
Napoleon invaded Spain in hopes of further enforcing the Continental System. Due to peasant loyalty and Guerrilla warfare, Napoleon lost in his efforts.
Austria fights back
Austria renewed efforts to fight France. At the Battle of Wagram, Napoleon won again, and took even more land from Austria.
Independence in New Spain
1810 - 1821
New Spain fought and gained independence. New Spain fought together under conservative values.
Russia withdraws from Continental System
Russia broke away from alliance with France. Precursor to war between France and Russia.
Invasion of Russia
Napoleon invaded Russia with a large army. Due to Russia's Scorched Earth policy and the harsh winter, Napoleon was forced to retreat, and over the course of the invasion lost 500,000 of his 600,000 men.
1814 - 1824
King of France after Napoleon. Issued the Charter
Law established in England to keep the price on grain stagnant. England was officially going with the aristocratic conservatives for now.
The Hundred Days
March 1, 1815 - June 18, 1815
Napoleon returns from his exile. The French people still rally behind him, and Napoleon holds his return until the battle of Waterloo.
November 20, 1815
Reformation of the Quadruple Alliance. Its purpose was to keep the peace in Europe.
Play by Lord Byron. Dove in to emotion as well as nature's beauty and cruelty.
Issued by Metternich to restrict the right to assemble. Dissolved the Burschenschaften.
August 16, 1819
11 people killed in England in a protest against the Corn Law. Showed how far the aristocracy was willing to go to keep conservative values.
Series of laws passed by England. Forbade large public meetings, raised fines for libel, sped up trials of political agitators, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training of armed groups, allowed local officials to search homes.
January 1820 - April 1823
Liberal revolution in Spain. Resulted in Protocol of Troppau.
Congress of Troppau
Congress that created principal of intervention.
Liberation of Peru
Peru liberated by San Martin. San Martin was a fighting force across several countries in Latin America.
February 1821 - 1829
Revolution in Greece for independence from Ottoman Empire. Revealed that Europe wanted to help Christians more than they wanted to suppress nationalism.
Liberation of Quito
Quito liberated by combined forces of San Martin and Bolivar. Revealed conflict of opinion between Martin and Bolivar on politics.
1824 - 1830
King of France after Louis XVIII. Tried to establish absolute monarchy once again.
Death of Tsar Alexander I
Tsar Alexander died unexpectedly. Led to Nicholas I assuming the position of Tsar.
Russian military revolt
December 26, 1825
Military officers refused to take oath to Nicholas I, demanded a constitution and the abolition of serfdom.
Catholic Emancipation Act
Act passed in Great Britain that allowed Catholics to be elected in to parliament. Calmed Ireland and stopped the occurrence of a revolution in Great Britain.
1830 - 1848
King of France after Charles X. Much more liberal, but no sympathy for lower classes.
Ottomans officially grant Serbia independence. Another successful revolution.
Charles X Abdicates
August 2, 1830
Charles X goes in to exile. Result of the July Revolution, a response to Charles X's reactionary policies.
Revolt in Poland
November 1830 - February 1832
Revolt in Poland suppressed by Russia. Russia now had an official image of suppression.
Belgium Becomes Independant
Belgium gains independence. Revolt fueled by revolution in France.
Bill passed in Great Britain that extended the right to vote to many more middle class men. Sign of liberal reform in Great Britain.
New British House of Parliament
Famous example of romanticism. Building was designed in the neo-gothic style.
1869 - 1886
New castle built on a mountain in Southern Germany. Most incredible neo-gothic structure of nineteenth century.