Chapter 19-20

Main

Methodism

1739

Beginnings of a new religion founded by John Wesley. Stressed emotion and heartfelt religion over rationalism.

Hegel

1770 - 1831

Historical philosopher. Developed theory of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

Romanticism

1770 - 1890

New age in art and literature that spread across Europe. A response to rationalism, romanticism focused on individualism, religion, and emotion.

Critique of Pure Reason

1781

Book by Kant. Kant believed that the sphere of reality through pure reason was limited.

Revolution in Haiti

1791 - 1804

Haiti's revolt against France. First successful colonial assault from Latin America.

Lyrical Ballads

1798

Poetry by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Rejected rules of 18th century criticism.

Consulate in France

1799 - 1804

The Consulate ended the revolution in France.

Lucinde

1799

Novel by Schlegel. Attacked prejudices against women.

Peace of Amiens

1802

Truce between France and England. Would not last due to Napoleon's ambitions.

GB declares war on France

May 1803

British response to Napoleon's developments on the continent.

Napoleon's Empire

1804 - March 1814

In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Napoleon rose to power in France and established an empire of his sole rule.

Battle of Trafalgar

October 21, 1805

Naval battle where Great Britain demolished the combined Spanish and French naval fleet without losing a single ship. However, Lord Nelson (GB) died in this battle.

Battle at Austerlitz

December 2, 1805

Napoleon defeated combined Austrian and Russian forces. Napoleon now recognized as king of Italy.

Stein's Reforms

1806

Reforms in response to Napoleon. Junker monopoly broken, serfdom abolished.

Berlin Decrees

November 21, 1806

Napoleon forbade importing of English goods across the continent in an attempt to wage economic warfare against Great Britain. This was not successful.

Milan Decree

1807

Further attempts from Napoleon at stopping Continental trade with Great Britain.

Treaty of Tilsit

July 7, 1807

Treaty that resulted in Napoleon gaining half of Prussia's territory. Prussia openly and Russia secretly allied with Napoleon.

Napoleon Invades Spain

1808

Napoleon invaded Spain in hopes of further enforcing the Continental System. Due to peasant loyalty and Guerrilla warfare, Napoleon lost in his efforts.

Faust

1808 - 1832

Dramatic poem published by Goethe in two parts. Dives in to emotion and religion.

Austria fights back

1809

Austria renewed efforts to fight France. At the Battle of Wagram, Napoleon won again, and took even more land from Austria.

Independence in New Spain

1810 - 1821

New Spain fought and gained independence. New Spain fought together under conservative values.

Russia withdraws from Continental System

December 1810

Russia broke away from alliance with France. Precursor to war between France and Russia.

Invasion of Russia

1812

Napoleon invaded Russia with a large army. Due to Russia's Scorched Earth policy and the harsh winter, Napoleon was forced to retreat, and over the course of the invasion lost 500,000 of his 600,000 men.

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

King of France after Napoleon. Issued the Charter

Corn Law

1815

Law established in England to keep the price on grain stagnant. England was officially going with the aristocratic conservatives for now.

The Hundred Days

March 1, 1815 - June 18, 1815

Napoleon returns from his exile. The French people still rally behind him, and Napoleon holds his return until the battle of Waterloo.

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815

Reformation of the Quadruple Alliance. Its purpose was to keep the peace in Europe.

Don Juan

1819

Play by Lord Byron. Dove in to emotion as well as nature's beauty and cruelty.

Carlsbad Decrees

July 1819

Issued by Metternich to restrict the right to assemble. Dissolved the Burschenschaften.

Peterloo Massacre

August 16, 1819

11 people killed in England in a protest against the Corn Law. Showed how far the aristocracy was willing to go to keep conservative values.

Six Acts

December 1819

Series of laws passed by England. Forbade large public meetings, raised fines for libel, sped up trials of political agitators, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training of armed groups, allowed local officials to search homes.

Spanish Revolution

January 1820 - April 1823

Liberal revolution in Spain. Resulted in Protocol of Troppau.

Congress of Troppau

October 1820

Congress that created principal of intervention.

Liberation of Peru

1821

Peru liberated by San Martin. San Martin was a fighting force across several countries in Latin America.

Greek Revolution

February 1821 - 1829

Revolution in Greece for independence from Ottoman Empire. Revealed that Europe wanted to help Christians more than they wanted to suppress nationalism.

Liberation of Quito

July 1822

Quito liberated by combined forces of San Martin and Bolivar. Revealed conflict of opinion between Martin and Bolivar on politics.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

King of France after Louis XVIII. Tried to establish absolute monarchy once again.

Death of Tsar Alexander I

November 1825

Tsar Alexander died unexpectedly. Led to Nicholas I assuming the position of Tsar.

Russian military revolt

December 26, 1825

Military officers refused to take oath to Nicholas I, demanded a constitution and the abolition of serfdom.

Catholic Emancipation Act

1829

Act passed in Great Britain that allowed Catholics to be elected in to parliament. Calmed Ireland and stopped the occurrence of a revolution in Great Britain.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

King of France after Charles X. Much more liberal, but no sympathy for lower classes.

Serbian Independence

1830

Ottomans officially grant Serbia independence. Another successful revolution.

Charles X Abdicates

August 2, 1830

Charles X goes in to exile. Result of the July Revolution, a response to Charles X's reactionary policies.

Revolt in Poland

November 1830 - February 1832

Revolt in Poland suppressed by Russia. Russia now had an official image of suppression.

Belgium Becomes Independant

December 1830

Belgium gains independence. Revolt fueled by revolution in France.

Reform Bill

1832

Bill passed in Great Britain that extended the right to vote to many more middle class men. Sign of liberal reform in Great Britain.

New British House of Parliament

1837

Famous example of romanticism. Building was designed in the neo-gothic style.

Neushwantstein

1869 - 1886

New castle built on a mountain in Southern Germany. Most incredible neo-gothic structure of nineteenth century.