Napoleon Bonaparte, later to be Napoleon I of France. Born in Corsica, died (exiled) in St. Helena. Was a general, and an Enlightened despot of France for around 10 years. Conquered much of Europe. Lost power completely at Battle of Waterloo.
Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel
1770 - 1831
Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel thought that each era in history was very important because it contributed to the next.
Constitution of the Year VIII
Made Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon I, started dynasty
1800 - 1840
Caspar David Fredrich - Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog (1818)
Reaction to the Enlightenment rationalism; emphasized emotion, mysticism, and nature.
Tsar Alexander I's reign
1801 - 1825
1804 - 1814
Napoleon I's Empire
Battle of Trafalgar
21 October 1805
British fleet led by Lord Nelson defeats Spanish+French fleet amazingly. Kills Napoleon's naval hopes.
Treaty of Tilsit
7 July 1807
Gave 1/2 of Prussia to Napoleon, made peace, and made Prussia and Russia allies of Napoleon's.
Spanish revolt against French
It got crushed. Nationalism...
Napoleon's invasion of Russia
FAIL OF NAPOLEON AND HIS ARMY. DECISIVE RUSSIAN VICTORY. SCORCHED EARTH.
Battle of Nations
@ Leipzig. Napoleon lost, was exiled to Elba
Congress of Vienna
September 1814 - November 1815
Was between the Quadruple alliance powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain), and aimed to have conservative peace in Europe. Act of Supremacy, Act of legitimacy. Also prevented another "Napoleonic" empire.
The Hundred days/ WATERLOO
1 March 1815 - 18 June 1815
Napoleon returned from Elba, and regained French power. He was finally beat once and for all at WATERLOO, and was exiled to St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
1770 - 1828
Conservative British politician
Klemens von Metternich
15 May 1773 - 11 June 1859
Conservative ruler of Austria. (Congress of Vienna, Concert of Europe, Carlsbad Decrees)
Nicholas I of Russia
1796 - 1855
Nicholas I of Russia (r.1825-1855): "ORTHODOXY,AUTOCRACY, and NATIONALISM"
1804 - 1830
Other independence events: Serbian independence (1830), Belgian independence (1830), Haitian independence (1804) - slave revolt, New Spain - Mexico (1821), Brazil (1822), Venezuela (1821)
1814 - 1830
Bourbon dynasty to end in France. Louis XVIII and Charles X. The Charter.
British law that kept grain prices high (benefited aristocracy)
An attempt at preventing revolution by the Brits. Temporarily suspended Habeas Corpus.
Peterloo and the Six acts
Over 10 protesters killed by guards at St. Peter's fields, Manchester, Great Britain. Mistake. Then the Six acts were passed by the British government to keep their conservative power.
An attempt by the conservative Austrian and German governments to suppress the Burschenschaften and keep order.
Assassination of August von Kotzebue
Karl Sand assassinated the Conservative playwright August von Kotzebue. He was later executed and became a martyr for the Burschenschaften.
The Troppeau Protocol (Act of Intervention) imposed by the Concert of Europe in response to the Spanish Revolution of 1820.
Greek Revolution of 1821
1821 - 1830
Greece revolted against Ottoman rule and gained full independence in 1830. Important because liberals, nationalists, and conservatives supported it.
RUSSIA! Revolt by Moscow regiment in 1825 pushing for a constitutional government. Brutally suppressed.
Great Reform Bill of Britain
Notabile. Streamlines British politics, makes revolt unnecessary.
June 1832 - July 1832
June revolution in France, in response to Charles X's four ordinances. Louis Phillipe put in power (Establishes July monarchy).
Industrial Revolution (1st)
1760 - 1840
Iron and Coal - William Bell Scott
1773 - 1850
Fail at French republic, fail at monarch.
1780 - 2013
Saint-Simon, Owen, Fourier
The steam engine, prefected by James Watts, helps out the transportation and industrial revolutions.
1818 - 2013
Found by Karl Marx. Led to Communism (+Frederick Engels). Very important in the 20th century. Communist Manifesto.
1836 - 1840
Pushed in Britain, wanted reforms. Unions.
1840 - 2013
Irish potato famine
1845 - 1847
Potato crop failure i Ireland. Catastrophe.
Revolutions of 1848
1848 - 1849
Crazy year(s). France, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Slavic areas; Louis Napoleon, Kossuth, Mazzini, Giribaldi, Frederick William IV.
1831 - 1871
1839 - 1876
Tanzimat: reforms in the Ottoman Empire
Austria, chapter 22
1848 - 1914
Seven weeks' war. Dual monarchy (Austria-Hungary)
Abolition of slavery
1850 - 1900
Slavery ended. Mainly due to economics, morals, and revolts.
France, chapter 22
1851 - 1906
From the Empire to the THIRD REPBLIC. Franco-Prussian war. Dreyfus.