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Napoleonic Era

Battle of Abukir


Under the command of Admiral Nelson, the British fleet destroys the French navy in the Battle of Abukir.

Napoleon's venture in Egypt

1798 - 1799

Constitution of the year VIII


·Receiving news of turmoil in France, Napoleon returns to Paris and established the rule of one man

Concordat of 1801


Signing of the Concordat between France and Rome ends schism between the French government and the Catholic Church.
-gov't issued supremacy of the church

The Napoleonic Code


Napoleon restructures French educational system and more in his code
·New constitution adopted, making Napoleon First Consul for life

Napoleon becomes Emperor


1804: ·Napoleon crowns himself Emperor in Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris
1805: ·Napoleon is crowned king of Italy in Milan

Victory in Land


Battle of Trafalgar


The Battle of Trafalgar marks yet another naval defeat to the British under the command of Admiral Nelson
-ends all French hope of invading England, and gave British control of the seas for the rest of the war

German Nationalism


-writers and nationalists encouraged independence, preserving culture and achievements
-despised German princes
-Baron von Stien and Prince von Hardenberg

Family members


Napoleon names his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king of Naples, and appoints other family members to various other posts

Treaty of Tilsit


peace treaty with Russia(secretly) and Prussia (openly) on. France
-Prussia lost half its territory

French invasion of Portugal

1807 - 1808

Beginning of French occupation of Portugal
February 20, 1808: ·Napoleon sends the French marshal Joachim Murat to lead an army in Spain
May 2, 1808: ·Unsuccessful Spanish revolt against French army under Murat
June 4, 1808: ·Napoleon names Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain, and Murat King of Naples

The Continental System


French efforts to block foreign trade with Great Britain by forbidding importation of British foods into Europe.


1809 - 1810

December 15, 1809: ·Divorces Josephine
April 2, 1810: ·Marries Marie-Louise, Archduchess of Austria

The Invasion of Russia


·Russian Campaign begins-they withdraw from the continental system
September 14, 1812: ·Grand Army enters Moscow to find the city abandoned and set aflame by the inhabitants; retreating in
the midst of a frigid winter, the army suffers devastating losses- they used the "scorched earth policy"

Battle of Nations- Napoleons fall

December 18, 1812

December 18, 1812: ·Napoleon returns to Paris
March 17, 1813: ·Prussia declares war on France
June 21, 1813: ·The French fall to Spain in the Battle of Vitoria
January 1814: ·Anti-French coalition army enters France
March 30-31, 1814: ·Paris falls
April 2, 1814: ·Senate proclaims end of the Empire; Napoleon's wife and son flee Paris to the island of ELBA.

Congress of Vienna


-returned the Burbouns to France
-strengthened the states around France
-decided on rule of legitimate monarchs

The Hundred Days


March 1, 1815: ·Escaping Elba, Napoleon returns in South France March 7, 1815: ·Napoleon rallies the French army March 20, 1815: ·Louis XVIII flees, Napoleon takes control, begins "Hundred Days" campaign

Quadruple Alliance


Battle of Waterloo

June 18,1815

June 18, 1815: ·Defeated in the Battle of Waterloo by the British and Prussians, led by Wellington and Blucher after the Hundred Days
June 22, 1815: ·Abdicates for the second time

Exile and death

October 16, 1815 - 1821

October 16, 1815: ·Napoleon is exiled to Saint Helena
March 5, 1821: ·Napoleon dies


The Romantic Movement

1762 - 1841

It was a reaction against the thought of Enlightenment. It was inspired by the Medieval times and it was about emotion and nature.

Rosseau's Emile


It distinguishes the difference between children and adults. He distinguished the stages of human maturation and urged that children be raised with maximum INDIVIDUAL freedom.

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason


He believed that humans mind precieves the world in its own mental categories not reflect the world in a passive mirror.

Lord Byron

1788 - 1824

Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.

Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads


The poem rejected the rules of eighteenth century criticism. For both, childhood was the bright period of creative imagination.

Schlegel's Lucindide


His work equalized women to men.

Chateaubriand's Genius of Christianity


He disapproved the religious policy of the French rev. He argued that the essence of religion is "passion." The foundation of faith in the church was the emotion that its teachings and sacraments inspired in the heart of the Christian.

Faust- Goethe


Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind


It was the belief that all periods of history have been of almost equal value because each was, by definition, necessary to the achievements of those that came later. Also all cultures are valuable for humankind to develop.

On Heroes and Hero-Worship- Thomas Carlyle


In his book, carlyle presented muhammad as the embodiment of the hero as prophet; he repudiated the traditional christian and general enlightenment view of muhammad as an impostor.