Chapter 19

Religion

Friedrich Schleiermacher

1768 - 1834

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Wrote "Speeches on Religion to Its Cultured Despisers" in 1799 as a response to Lutheran orthodoxy and to Enlightenment rationalism. According to him religion was neither dogma nor a system of ethic it was intuition or feeling of absolute dependence on an infinite reality.

Napoleon concludes a concordat with Pope Pius VII

1801


Refractory clergy and those who accepted revolution to resign and the church gave up claims to confiscated property. In return the pope wanted religious dominance for the Roman Catholic Church.

Organic Articles

1802


Issued without consulting the pope and established the supremacy of state over the church.

"The Genius of Christianity"

1802

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By Viscount Francois Rene de Chateaubriand became known as the bible of Romanticism. that essence of religion is passion

General/ Politcal History (Wars, rulers, treaties. . .)

Treaty of Campo Formio

1797

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Took Austria out of the war and crowned Napoleon's campaign successful

Napoleon's invasion of Eygpt

1798 - 1799


Purpose was to stop trading routes to Great Britain. It marked the first major West European assault on the Ottoman Empire.

Napoleon I rule

1799 - 1821


Ruled France as First Consul. During his rule he dominated most of Europe. He is considered the greatest enlightened despot. Spread nationalism and enlightened ideals throughout Europe. Established Napoleonic Code and Continental system.

Constitution of the Year VIII

1799


Established Bonaparte as the First Consul. He was the first modern political figure to use rhetoric of revolution and nationalism with military force into a mighty weapon of imperial expansion.

Britain declares war

1803


Napoleon ignored the British ultimatum. William Pitt the Younger was prime minister and construct the Third Coalition.

Civil Code/ Napoleonic Code

1804


Safeguarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges

Treaty of Pressburg

1805

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After Napoleon defeated Austrian and Russian forces at Austerliz. The Treaty of Pressburg won major concessions from Austria who withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in control of everything north of Rome. Was called king of Italy.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806

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Napoleon organized the Confederation of the Rhine which included most of the western German princes

Continental System

1806 - 1810


Napoleon hoped to cut off all British trade with European continent and thereby drive the British from the war.

Berlin Decrees

November 21, 1806


Napoleon's decree that forbade his allies from importing British goods.

Treaty of Tilsit

1807


Signed by Russia which confirmed France's gains. Prussia lost half its territory. Prussia openly and Russia secretly became allies of Napoleon

Napoleon master of all of Germany

1807


Napoleon defeated the Russians at Friedland and occupied East Prussia.

French army invade Iberian Peninsula

1807

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French army came into the Iberian Peninsula to force Portugal to abandon its traditional alliance with Britain.

Milan Decree

1807

Austria renews war

1809

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Austrian renew the war with France hoping Napoleon would be distracted with Spain.

Napoleon's invasion of Russa

1810 - December 1812

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Russia withdrew from the Continental System. Russian public opinion forced the army to give Napoleon the battle he wanted. By December Napoleons troop diminished.

Napoleon exiled

1814

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Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba after he had been defeated.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - November 1815

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The four great powers conducted important work to make sure no single state should be allowed to dominate Europe.

Treaty of Chaumont

March 9, 1814

Napoleon returns

March 1, 1815

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Napoleon returns from Elba to loyal people who still preferred his rule.

Waterloo

June 18, 1815

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815

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England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia renewed the Quadruple Alliance which was a coalition for maintaining peace.

Napoleon's death

1821

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, . . . Individuals . . .

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804

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Wrote "The Critique of Pure Reason" in 1781 and "The Critique of Practical Reason" in 1788. He sought to use rationalism of the Enlightenment to preserve a belief in human freedom, immortality, and the existence of God. Believed all humans possessed a sense of moral duty or categorical imperative.

Thomas Warton

1728 - 1790

Johann Gottfried Herder

1744 - 1803

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Used the terms Romantic and Gothic interchangeably. The terms came to be applied to all literature that did not observe classical forms and rules and gave free play to the imagination. Resented French cultural dominance in Germany. Rejected mechanical explanation of nature. saw human beings and societies as developing organically.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

1749 - 1832

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Wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" in 1774 and emphasis on felling and on living outside the bounds of polite society. Wrote "Faust" Part I and II 1808-1832 where Fause makes a pact with the devil that he will exchange his soul for the greater knowledge than other human beings possess.

"Emile"

1762

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Written by Rousseau and stressed the difference between children and adults.

J.G. Fichte

1762 - 1814

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He was an important German philosopher and nationalist, identified the individual ego with the Absolute that underlies all existing things. According to him, the world is truly the creation of humankind.

August Wilhelm von Schlegel

1767 - 1845

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Praised the Romantic literature of Dante, Petrach, Boccaccio, Shakespeare, the Arthurian legends, Cervantes, and Calderon. According to him Romantic literature was to classical literature what the organic and living were to the merely mechanical. Set forth his views in "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature"

Friedrich Schelgel

1767 - 1845

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Wrote "Lucinde" in 1799 that attacked prejudices against women. The work shocked contemporary morals by frankly discussing sexual activity and by describing Lucinde as equal to the male hero.

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850

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Coleridge's closest friend. Together published "Lyrical Ballads" in 1798

Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel

1770 - 1831

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Most important philosopher of history. Ideas develop in evolutionary fashion that involves conflict. He termed thesis, antithesis, and syntheis. He concluded that all periods of history and all cultures are important for their own contribution to history.

Henri Beyle

1783 - 1842

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Praised Shakespeare and criticized his own country man, Jean Racine.

"The Thousand and ONe Nights"

1788

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Rejected classicism in literature in favor of folk stories and fairy tells.

Lord Byron

1788 - 1824

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Rebel among Romantic poets. Championed the cause of personal liberty.

"William Lovell"

1793 - 1795

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Written by Ludwig Tieck and Was the first German Romantic novel the contrasts the young Lovell with those who lived by cold reason alone.

"Description of Egypt"

1809 - 1828

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Written by Napoleon's scholars which concentrated largely on ancient Egypt.

"Tales of the Crusaders"

1825

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By Sir Walter Scott. It ignored the havoc that the crusaders had visited on the peoples of the Middle East.

On Heroes and Hero-Worship

1841

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Thomas Carlyle attributed positive qualities to Muhammad. In this book he presented Muhammad as the embodiment of the hero as prophet. He repudiated the traditional Christian and general Enlightenment view of Muhammad as an impostor.

Art

Joseph Mallord Willaim Turner

1775 - 1851

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"Rain, Steam, and Speed-The Great Western Railway" in 1844 illustrated the recently invented railway engine barreling through an enveloping storm.

John Constable

1776 - 1837

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A politically conservative in "Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows" he portrayed a stable world in which neither political turmoil nor industrial development challenged the dominance of the church.

Castle of Neuschwanstein

1869 - 1886

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NEo-Gothic revival in architecture. Contructed by King Ludwig II of Bavaria

Misc.