Chapter 19


Friedrich Schleiermacher

1768 - 1834
Wrote "Speeches on Religion to Its Cultured Despisers" in 1799 as a response to Lutheran orthodoxy and to Enlightenment rationalism. According to him religion was neither dogma nor a system of ethic it was intuition or feeling of absolute dependence on an infinite reality.

Napoleon concludes a concordat with Pope Pius VII


Refractory clergy and those who accepted revolution to resign and the church gave up claims to confiscated property. In return the pope wanted religious dominance for the Roman Catholic Church.

Organic Articles


Issued without consulting the pope and established the supremacy of state over the church.

"The Genius of Christianity"

By Viscount Francois Rene de Chateaubriand became known as the bible of Romanticism. that essence of religion is passion

General/ Politcal History (Wars, rulers, treaties. . .)

Treaty of Campo Formio

Took Austria out of the war and crowned Napoleon's campaign successful

Napoleon's invasion of Eygpt

1798 - 1799

Purpose was to stop trading routes to Great Britain. It marked the first major West European assault on the Ottoman Empire.

Constitution of the Year VIII


Established Bonaparte as the First Consul. He was the first modern political figure to use rhetoric of revolution and nationalism with military force into a mighty weapon of imperial expansion.

Napoleon I rule

1799 - 1821

Ruled France as First Consul. During his rule he dominated most of Europe. He is considered the greatest enlightened despot. Spread nationalism and enlightened ideals throughout Europe. Established Napoleonic Code and Continental system.

Britain declares war


Napoleon ignored the British ultimatum. William Pitt the Younger was prime minister and construct the Third Coalition.

Civil Code/ Napoleonic Code


Safeguarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges

Treaty of Pressburg

After Napoleon defeated Austrian and Russian forces at Austerliz. The Treaty of Pressburg won major concessions from Austria who withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in control of everything north of Rome. Was called king of Italy.

Continental System

1806 - 1810

Napoleon hoped to cut off all British trade with European continent and thereby drive the British from the war.

Confederation of the Rhine

Napoleon organized the Confederation of the Rhine which included most of the western German princes

Berlin Decrees

November 21, 1806

Napoleon's decree that forbade his allies from importing British goods.

Treaty of Tilsit


Signed by Russia which confirmed France's gains. Prussia lost half its territory. Prussia openly and Russia secretly became allies of Napoleon

Milan Decree


French army invade Iberian Peninsula

French army came into the Iberian Peninsula to force Portugal to abandon its traditional alliance with Britain.

Napoleon master of all of Germany


Napoleon defeated the Russians at Friedland and occupied East Prussia.

Austria renews war

Austrian renew the war with France hoping Napoleon would be distracted with Spain.

Napoleon's invasion of Russa

1810 - December 1812
Russia withdrew from the Continental System. Russian public opinion forced the army to give Napoleon the battle he wanted. By December Napoleons troop diminished.

Napoleon exiled

Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba after he had been defeated.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - November 1815
The four great powers conducted important work to make sure no single state should be allowed to dominate Europe.

Treaty of Chaumont

March 9, 1814

Napoleon returns

March 1, 1815
Napoleon returns from Elba to loyal people who still preferred his rule.


June 18, 1815

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815
England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia renewed the Quadruple Alliance which was a coalition for maintaining peace.

Napoleon's death


Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, . . . Individuals . . .

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804
Wrote "The Critique of Pure Reason" in 1781 and "The Critique of Practical Reason" in 1788. He sought to use rationalism of the Enlightenment to preserve a belief in human freedom, immortality, and the existence of God. Believed all humans possessed a sense of moral duty or categorical imperative.

Thomas Warton

1728 - 1790

Johann Gottfried Herder

1744 - 1803
Used the terms Romantic and Gothic interchangeably. The terms came to be applied to all literature that did not observe classical forms and rules and gave free play to the imagination. Resented French cultural dominance in Germany. Rejected mechanical explanation of nature. saw human beings and societies as developing organically.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

1749 - 1832
Wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" in 1774 and emphasis on felling and on living outside the bounds of polite society. Wrote "Faust" Part I and II 1808-1832 where Fause makes a pact with the devil that he will exchange his soul for the greater knowledge than other human beings possess.

J.G. Fichte

1762 - 1814
He was an important German philosopher and nationalist, identified the individual ego with the Absolute that underlies all existing things. According to him, the world is truly the creation of humankind.


Written by Rousseau and stressed the difference between children and adults.

August Wilhelm von Schlegel

1767 - 1845
Praised the Romantic literature of Dante, Petrach, Boccaccio, Shakespeare, the Arthurian legends, Cervantes, and Calderon. According to him Romantic literature was to classical literature what the organic and living were to the merely mechanical. Set forth his views in "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature"

Friedrich Schelgel

1767 - 1845
Wrote "Lucinde" in 1799 that attacked prejudices against women. The work shocked contemporary morals by frankly discussing sexual activity and by describing Lucinde as equal to the male hero.

Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel

1770 - 1831
Most important philosopher of history. Ideas develop in evolutionary fashion that involves conflict. He termed thesis, antithesis, and syntheis. He concluded that all periods of history and all cultures are important for their own contribution to history.

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850
Coleridge's closest friend. Together published "Lyrical Ballads" in 1798

Henri Beyle

1783 - 1842
Praised Shakespeare and criticized his own country man, Jean Racine.

"The Thousand and ONe Nights"

Rejected classicism in literature in favor of folk stories and fairy tells.

Lord Byron

1788 - 1824
Rebel among Romantic poets. Championed the cause of personal liberty.

"William Lovell"

1793 - 1795
Written by Ludwig Tieck and Was the first German Romantic novel the contrasts the young Lovell with those who lived by cold reason alone.

"Description of Egypt"

1809 - 1828
Written by Napoleon's scholars which concentrated largely on ancient Egypt.

"Tales of the Crusaders"

By Sir Walter Scott. It ignored the havoc that the crusaders had visited on the peoples of the Middle East.

On Heroes and Hero-Worship

Thomas Carlyle attributed positive qualities to Muhammad. In this book he presented Muhammad as the embodiment of the hero as prophet. He repudiated the traditional Christian and general Enlightenment view of Muhammad as an impostor.


Joseph Mallord Willaim Turner

1775 - 1851
"Rain, Steam, and Speed-The Great Western Railway" in 1844 illustrated the recently invented railway engine barreling through an enveloping storm.

John Constable

1776 - 1837
A politically conservative in "Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows" he portrayed a stable world in which neither political turmoil nor industrial development challenged the dominance of the church.

Castle of Neuschwanstein

1869 - 1886
NEo-Gothic revival in architecture. Contructed by King Ludwig II of Bavaria