African Empires Timeline


Egyptian Empire

5,000 BC - 750 BC
  • pharaoh
  • built temples and pyramid tombs
  • developed hieroglyphics, a form of writing
  • produced calendar
  • medical advances

Kingdom of Kush

750 BC - 200 AD

-750 BC, Egyptian power lessened, King Kastha of Kush led his forces North and conquered the Nile valley.
-Assyrians push out Kushites out of Egypt
-The rulers of Kush built a new capital at Meroe on the banks of the Nile
-Iron ore deposits gave Kushites the opportunity to make iron tools and weapons
-Kush profited by trade from Egypt and the Mediterranean world
-200 AD, Kush declined due to invasions and internal rivalries

Kingdom of Axum

200 AD
  • center of trade
  • King Ezana of Axum conquered Kush
  • converted to Christianity
  • also had own language called Geez

Empire of Ghana

500 AD - 1076
  • Soninke founded them
  • had lavish court
  • traded, especially with Berbers

Empire of Mali

1200 - 1600
  • capital: Timbuktu -After Ghana broke, Mandingos (farmers of Ghana) rose to power and seized some gold producing areas -Mansa Musa was a great ruler who pushed out the borders of his empire and captured Taghaza which made him stronger

Empire of Songhai

1400 - 1591
  • Sunni Ali gained power in Gao and set out to restore order in trading cities
  • captured Timbuktu and other centers of trade
  • Askia Muhammad
  • was Muslim, encouraged Islamic teachers to stay and teach, made Timbuktu center of learning