The Kingdoms of Africa

The African Kingdoms

The Kingdom of Kush

750 BC - 300

-750 BC, Egyptian power lessened, King Kastha of Kush led his forces North and conquered the Nile valley.
-Assyrians push out Kushites out of Egypt
-The rulers of Kush built a new capital at Meroe on the banks of the Nile
-Iron ore deposits gave Kushites the opportunity to make iron tools and weapons
-Kush profited by trade from Egypt and the Mediterranean world
-200 AD, Kush declined due to invasions and internal rivaries

The Kingdom of Axum

100 - 900
  • Center of trade
  • King Ezana of Axum conquered Kush
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Also had own language called Geez

The Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu

600 - 1900

-Famous for adopting a strict and disciplined Islamic faith
-Was first the Kingdom of Bornu, but then conquered Kanem
-A conquering Kingdom

The Empire of Ghana

700 - 1200
  • The Soninke people founded them
  • Had a lavish court
  • Traded gold and salt especially with Berbers

The Cities of East Africa

900 - 1600

-Had a Swahilli cuture that is a mix of Arabic and African language -Was situated on the coast of East Africa where trade was prominent


1200 - 1450

-Was named 'the Great Stone House' for its architectual advances with stone
-Leaders became rich with gold deposits nearby

The Kingdom of Mali

1200 - 1600
  • Capital: Timbuktu -After Ghana broke, Mandingos (farmers of Ghana) rose to power and seized some gold producing areas -Mansa Musa was a great ruler who pushed out the borders of his empire and captured Taghaza which made him stronger. Mans Musa was the first African to take part in a pilgrimage towards Mecca

The Kingdom of Songhai

1300 - 1500
  • Sunni Ali gained power in Gao and set out to restore order in trading cities. A war leader.
  • Captured Timbuktu and other centers of trade, freedom from Mali
  • Askia Muhammad contributed after Sunni Ali passed by setting up Timbuktu as a captial of learning and scholarship. Followed Mansa Musa's footsteps and made a prilgrimage to Mecca.
  • was Muslim, encouraged Islamic teachers to stay and teach, made Timbuktu center of learning


1470 - Present

-The only current standing kingdom of today
-Is rich in natural resources around its area