BIG 9 SOCIAL IDENTIFIERS

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1st Amendment

1791

freedom of speech, religion, press, right to assemble and petition.

Dred Scott V. Sandford

1857

13th Amendment

1865

abolishment of slavery, except for punishment for a crime.

14th Amendment

1868

definition of citizenship

15th Amendment

1870

prohibits denial of suffrage on the basis of race.

Pace v. Alabama

1883

interracial marrying would result in imprisonment, overturned in 1967 Loving v. Virginia

Plessy V. Ferguson

1896

segregation

19th Amendment

1920

women's suffrage - right to vote.

Korematsu v. United States

1944

upheld the constitutionality of ordering Japanese into internment camps regardless of citizenship, not declared an error until 2011

Brown V. Board of Education

1954

Bailey v. Patterson

1962

prohibited racial segregation of transportation facilities

Loving v. Virginia

1967

state laws prohibiting interracial marriage are unconstitutional

Jones v. Mayer Co.

1968

federal law bars all racial discrimination in sale or rental of property

26th Amendment

1971

age - right to vote for 18 or older

Baker v. Nelson

1972

upheld constitutionality of a state's denial of a civil marriage license to a same-sex couple

Roe V. Wade

1973

abortion

UC Regents v. Bakke

1978

program was unconstitutional because of its use of quotas, but public universities may take race into account as a factor in admissions decisions.

Don't ask, don't tell

1993

barred open gay, lesbian, and bisexual people from the military, was repealed in 2011

Defense of Marriage Act

1996

forbids the federal government from recognizing same-sex unions and says that states do not have to recognize same-sex unions performed in other jurisdictions

Grutter v. Bolinger

2003

a law school's limited "affirmative action" as a practice is constitutional

Fisher v. UT Austin

2013

race in university admission - to be decided