Lincoln's 10% plan
Johnson's plan (punish confederate leaders/landowners)
Radical Republican plan (harsher on south and more protective of African Americans - Thaddeus Stevens/Charles Sumner)
Congressional Reconstruction (first reconstruction act 1867, divided south into military districts, new state constitutions and oath of loyalty required for readmission)
Stalwarts - Roscoe Conkling Party Patronage
Halfbreeds - James G Blaine Anti Stalwart Party Patronage
Mugwamps - Other Reps.
Labeled by Mark Twain.
New Class born in the pursuit of money and leisure.
Weak unproductive presidents came to power through the political machines of the time.
"that splendid little war"
caused y 19th century jingoism and a fight by cuban nationalists.
128 US passengers killed by German U-boat attack
US denied existence of ammunition on board and claimed Germany violated neutrality of the seas
Note from germany to Mexico proposing Mexican-German alliance.
Wilson Declared war to make the world safe for democracy.
US never signed because Congress did not agree with the League of Nations and did not want to lose their power to declare war
Wilson's 14 Points
Cultural movement in response to racism and race riots in Harlem at the time.Art poetry and music (jazz) expressing African American pride.
Buying on the Margin
Emergency Banking Relief Act
US Housing Authority
President during civil war. Assasinated by John Wilkes Booth.
Lincoln's VP, nearly impeached but wasn't. (Tenure of Office Act)
Southerner, but remained loyal to Union during civil war.
Elected because he was a popular war hero that identified with the north. "waving the bloody shirt" (reminded people of the hardships of war)
Virtually no political experience.
Came into office through compromise of 1877
Forced to end Reconstruction.
Removed many corrupt politicians. Compromised with opposition to Chinese immigrants by restricting immigration. Supported Civil Rights and Civil Reform.
Brought Temperance to the White House
Opposed the Greenback.
Favored moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for Freedmen.
Assasinated by Charles Guiteau
Stalwart - Republican political machine. Major supporter of Roscoe Conkling
22nd & 24th President. Only Democratic president in time dominated by Republican leadership.
Elected after mudwamps deserted Halfreed James G Blaine in the 1884 Election.
Grandson of William Henry Harrison
Served in Union Army
Civil Rights. McKinley Tariff. Sherman Anti-trust Act.
Billion Dollar Congress
Raised Protective tariffs to promote American industry and rejected free silver movement.
Assassinated by Czolgosz.
VP = TR
Progressive "cowboy" and McKinley's VP
Political machine never wanted him in power.
Square Deal for all Americans
Basically handpicked for the job by TR, but during admin. lost support of most progressives. Later became Chief Justice of US.
Progressive. Won election because of split in Rep. party.
14 Points, WWI, LON, etc
He was "handsome" - Became president because he looked like one. Much Scandal in Admin. Teapot Dome, etc
Died in office. (much speculation about cause of death)
Harding's VP, laissez-faire small gov policies
Attempted to combat depression with high protective tariffs, corporate bailouts, and encouraging private volunteer organizations. Generally ranked no higher than average.
New Deal, WWII, Centralized/strengthened executive federal power.
gave 160 acres free to anyone who owned land for 5 years and improved that land. The land could be bought for $1.25 for 6 months but if the land was not improved it was taken away. This act encouraged settlement, but most people decided to buy more desirable land.
granted "full pardon" and property in exchange for allegiance to union
10% plan of Reconstruction - Preserve union! (if 10% of people who voted in 1860 election pledged allegiance the state could be readmitted)
Created by Senator Ben Wade and Congressman Henry Davis
Harsher alternative to Lincoln's 10% plan (50% had to pledge allegiance to union to be readmitted)
Pocket-Vetoed by Lincoln, too radical.
Purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million by Secretary of State William H Seward without consulting congress.
Also referred to as Seward's icebox
Separated the confederate south into five military districts, each with a union general which would serve as the commanding government. Congress required each state to draft a new state constitution that would be approved by congress, to ratify the 14th amendment granting all men rights and to grant voting rights to black men. President Johnson vetoed these acts but was overridden by congress.
Any officeholder appointed by president with senate's consent could not be removed until Senate had approved succesor.
Pres Andrew Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton Aug. 1867.
-> impeached but saved from removal from office by one vote
Removed voting restrictions and office holding disqualifications against secessionists who reelled during the civil war. Affected about 150,000 confederates but excluded former major confederate leaders.
Aka Crime of 1873. Demonetized silver and made gold the only metallic standard in the US, putting the US on a de-facto Gold Standard.
Also known as "The Great Betrayal" An agreement between Republicans and Democrats that settled the intensely disputed election of 1876.
-Hayes became president
-Republican troops were withdrawn from the south.
-A transcontinental railroad was built from Texas to the Pacific
led to the formation of "The Solid South"
required US treasury to buy a certain amout of Silver to put into circulation as silver dollars.
Vetoed by Hayes but overridden by congress
Excluded Chinese immigration to the US for 10 years so Chinese wouldn't "steal" jobs from Americans.
Passed by the Chester Arthur administration.
Established a merit system of making appointments to office on the basis of aptitude rather than "pull". Also set up a civil service commission, charged with examining applicants for posts.
Forced civilization on Indians. Gave 160 acres free to indians if they behaved and adopted white ways. They had to separate from their tribes, and after 25 years indians could become citizens. Banned Indian culture. Many refused the free land.
Policy in place until 1924.
passed to combat monopoly like power and wealth of railroad corporations. Farmers were being forced into bankruptcy by railroad corporation's rates.
Forbade discriminatory rates.
Led to creation of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
prohibits certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace.
Limited monopolies and regulated industrial development.
Raised average duty on imports to almost 50%. Used to protect domestic industries from foreign competition
increased amount of silver gov was required to purchase every month
Repealed in 1893 to prevent depletion of country's gold reserves
US would not establish permanent control over cuba
Treaty of Paris
replaced Teller amendment (1898)
allowed US "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence"
Allowed ICC to impose heavy fines on businesses that offered rebates, especially to railroad companies, and on those that accepted rebates
US could intervene if necessary to stabilize the economies of Latin American Nations
Ended Russo-Japanese war
Mediated by TR
Authorized ICC to set maximum railroad rates and inspect financial records
Extended authority of ICC to regulate telecommunications industry
Corollary to the Monroe doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge
Forbade any country in acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere that put that government in "practical power of control"
aka revenue act, underwood-simmons act, or underwood tariff bill.
Wilson's Triple Wall of Privilege. Promised reform in tariffs.
Made Sherman anti-trust act more effective.
set up regulations on interests on mortgages ad bonds. helped rural farmers.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916
compensation for civil service workers for wages lost due to job related injuries
Quadrupled National Guard
reorganized industry for maimum efficiency and productivity during wwI
limited public liberties
supressed antiwar sentiments
Responsible for allies' food reserves/stabilizing price of wheat
National Prohibition Act
Designed to keep out "new immigrants'
immigrants limited to 3% of number of natives in 1910 census
5 Power Treaty - limiting naval construction US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy
4 Power Treaty - maintain status quo in pacific US, Britain, France, Japan
9 Power Treaty - Sovreignty of China/Open Door Policy US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, China
Under Pres. Harding
raised tariff rates
good for big business and reflected returning conservatism of 1920s
too many southern/eastern Europeans
Immigrants 2% of natives in 1890 census
Plan for repaying wwi debt
Highest US tariff in history
biggest mistake of Hoover's presidency
75% banks reopened following holiday
Banned racial discrimination in public places, strengthened federal gov's power to end segregation, and created a federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
US outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
Started as social group but grew into major white supremacist organization. Founded in Tennessee. Lynched people (mostly blacks but some others) burned down houses, and intimidated people into doing as they wanted, so barely any blacks were able to vote in any elections.
Organization provided food, clothing, and fuel to destitute former slaves. Managed/supervised abandoned land in South and all subjects relating to the freedman.
First national labor federation in the US.
Founded by William H Sylvis.
Paved the way for other organizations such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL.
Campaigned for the exclusion of Chinese workers.
1868 Congress passed legislation providing 8 hr work day for gov workers.
Northerners looking for personal gain in the south under reconstruction governments after the civil war.
used to describe southerners who supported reconstruction governments after the civil war for personal gain.
Aka the Great Upheaval. Martinsburg, West Virginia. Put down after 45 days by local and state militias and federal troops.
Workers for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad went on strike after the company reduced workers' wages twice over the previous year. Strikers refused to let trains run until most recent pay cut was returned to employees.
Members of the "producing class" were encouraged to join(regardless of race nationality gender occupation etc)
By mid 1890s had decreased in popularity because of political activities.
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, detailed Indian troubles.
Supported assimilation as the best course of action.
Started by Samuel Gompers
pure and simple unionism" Only resorted to strikes if compaies refused to bargain in good faith.
Disregarded unskilled workers, minorities, and immigrants.
"Family wage" to be earned by men.
Urged voting against Roman Catholic Candidates
Jane Addams Settlement House located in poor immigrant neighborhood.
Created the line of social work.
National American woman Suffrage Association
Unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)
Largest/most important women's rights organization
needed to vote
Direct Election of Senators
Public ownership of Railroads
Graduated Income tax
Silver Gold Ration 16:1
Gov Ownership of telephones
Based on Farmers Alliance and Also Called the People's Party
Won electoral votes for James Weaer During 1982 Election.
Omaha Platform 1892
Strike by workers at Homestead Steel works in Homestead PA. Industrial lockout & strike between amalgamated association of Iron and steel workers & Carnegie Steel Company. Was a major defeat for the union.
Also called the People's Party
Protesting unemployment during depression
Led by Jacob Coxey.
Conflict between American Railway Union and railroads in the US. Began over wage reductions on members of the pullman palace car company.
Booker T Washington - championed education, skill development, and economic autonomy over social equality.
Speech Reflected Washington's idea of race relations but dismissed questions of injustice and white supremacy.
Booker T Washington also had had lunch with president Theodore Roosevelt and his 1901 autobiography "Up From Slavery" became a bestseller. He also helped to organize the Tuskegee institute (an all black state school in Tennesee)
William Jennings Bryan
Became a bestseller.
Booker T Washington believed in education, skill development, and economic autonomy over social equality.
JP Morgan. Railroad holding company - Morgan, Hill, & Rockefeller. Controlled most of the US Railroad lines.
Dissolved in 1904
Federal government sided w/ labor rather than corporations during a strike
Led by W.E.B. DuBois who demanded full equality, both economic AND social.
Organization demanded suffrage and civil rights.
Died out by 1911 but was the foundation for the NAACP which was established in 1908.
Socialist novel portraying horrors of meatpacking industry in Chicago.
Led to passing of Meat Inspection Act.
An African-American civil rights organization. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”
Received 6% of popular vote popular with labor and populist movements
Founded by Marcus Garvey to "unite all the Negro peoples of the world" and promote resettlement into their own African homeland. Pan-Africanism, urging return of African Americans to Africa.
National Guard sent to end it ->violence/death
failure for unions - seen as socialistic "reds"
Albert Fall (Corrupt official of Harding admin)
leased lands to oilmen Doherty & Sinclair after receiving $100,000 bribe from Doherty and $300,000 from SInclair.
Sentenced to 1 yr in jail in 1929
Charles R Forbes (corrupt official of Harding admin)
took $200 millino from government intended to build veteran hospitals
it was in spring and summer idk the actual dates i made them up its late and im tired
Led by John Davis and Al Smith
battling socialist aspects of New Deal
assassinated in 1936
biggest threat to fdr
Not an anti-anyone movement, but a "pro-negro" movement
Randolph supported Double V campaign - Victory in democracy at home and abroad. He urged African Americans of the United States to stand up for their democracy
About 200,000 blacks and whites participated in peaceful protest. MLK's "I have a Dream" speech as head of SCLC.
Began with Rosa Parks being arrested for refusing to give up her seat. Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) founded with MLK Jr as its leader, which helped guide the movement.
50,000 A. Americans boycotted the bus system for 11 months. It took a major economic toll on the public transportation system. MLK urged nonviolent resistance against opposition to the boycott.
Ended when ruling of Browder v. Gayle declared bus segregational laws unconstitutional.
3 Immediate Effects:
- Showed power of economics
- emergence of MLK Jr
Successful build up of A. American political unity.
Buses attacked and burned.
Generated publicity over desegregation of transportation.
Carried out by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Attempt to register as many african american voters a s possible in mississippi organized by the Council of Federated Organization. (SNCC, CORE, NAACP, & SCLC)
March for voting rights for African Americans.
1st March Bloody Sunday - 600 marchers attacked by police with tear gas and billy clubs.
2nd March protected by 2000 US soldiers sent by President Johnson.
Colorado governor, John Evans, encouraged white civilians "the colorado volunteers" to stage raids through Cheyenne campgrounds.
Chief Black Kettle took 800 Cheyennes to a US fort for protection and received orders to set up camp at Sand Creek.
Several weeks later while most of the men were hunting, the Colorado Volunteers led by Col Chivington attacked Black Kettle's camp even though they carried the American flag and a white truce banner. 700 men, mostly drunk, slaughtered 105 Cheyenne women & children and 28 men. They mutilated corpses and took scalps as trophies.
war between Apache (later Kiowa and Comanche) Indians and the US army.
Started because of Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 which relocated indians to a reservation in present day oklahoma. Ended with the surrender of Geronimo, with only 30 men left in his army.
General Custer's troops came upon the little bighorn river and tried to attack Sioux indians, but he was outnumbered 3 to 1. His army was annihilated. Reinforcement came later and killed all the Sioux. Crazy Horse led the Sioux into battle against the US troops.
Labor demonstration in chicago, began as peaceful strike.
Unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they tried to disperse the meeting. Bomb blast and ensuing gunfire led to the deaths of 7 police officers and at least 4 civilians. It led to the Haymarket affair.
Calvalry attacked Sioux indians and Ghost Dancers, who were unarmed and also under an american flag. Around 300 Sioux were killed.
"Remember the Maine To Hell with Spain!"
Pushed US closer to start of Span-Am War
Explosion actually caused by an eruption of a boiler on board the ship, not Spain.
officially abolished and prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, passed by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865.
Defined citizenship. Equal protection of all citizens. Due process under the law, etc.
Gave African Americans the right to vote. The concept of African Americans voting was not fully recognized for years because of poll taxes, literacy tests, and intimidation from groups such as the KKK.
Authorized Federal income tax.
Taxed individuals without regard to population of each state, and ended the constitutional debate on how to tax income
Women's right to vote
Part of FDR's campaign
Eliminated poll taxes for African Americans when voting.
Established ma rates for storing grains. Supreme Court ruled that staes had power to regulate privately owned businesses like railroads when they served the public's interest.
Southerners used rape as excuse to hide real reason for lynchings: black economic progress
"separate but equal"
Court agreed that congress could restrict speech if words "are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger"
Irene Morgan refused to sit in the back of an interstate bus.
Supreme court ruled that segregation on interstate buses was an undue burden on interstate commerce.
Oliver Brown sought to overturn a state law permitting cities to maintain segregated schools.
Court ruled that in public education "separate but equal" had no place.
Chief Justice = Earl Warren
Newspaperman O'Sullivan wrote "our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions"
God-given right to bring benefits of American Democracy to other more backward peoples, by force if necessary.
Declared the Dakota Black Hills to be Indian Reservation land.
Depression due to commercial overexpansion. New York stock exchange suspended and unemployment rose
People questioned rep. party
1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had previously prescribed Black Hills as an Indian Reservation
Dispute over presidential election of 1876.
Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel J Tilden
Caused greatly in part by Amnesty act of 1872.
Alexander Graham Bell
Greenbacks supported renewed use of non gold backed US notes, silver alongside gold, 8 hr work day, and graduated income tax.
Party quickly faded and merged with democrats/populists.
Weaver ran for election again as a populist in 1892.
Congress built up and modernized the American Navy
Speec by Republican clergyman that insulted Irish-American voters.
Cost Halfbreed James G Blaine the presidential election, and gave the presidency to the Democrats (Cleveland)
Closed in 1880s due to overgrazing, a blizzard, and a drought, (1885-1886) which killed over 90% of the cattle. Cattle industry taken over by big businesses setting up fenced in ranches. Homesteaders also got in the way of long drives.
Andrew Carnegie = "richest man in the world" "captain of industry" and genius of vertical integration with his business Carnegie Steel.
Acres of Diamonds/Wealth
It is a person's duty to try to become rich.
It is a disgrace to die with money to be passed on to children. Use wealth to create society with social/economic ladders.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Leading spokesmen for age of imperialism, concentrated on harsh realities.
Great powers maintained strong navies and merchant marines.
Stock Market crashed as the result of railroad overspeculation.
Railroads bankrupt and bought by JP Morgan
Panic lasted 4 years
Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Both sensationalized news
Secretary of State John Hay
Harmonious Righteous Fists, "Boxers" Anti-Foreigner/Anti-Missionary Targeted Americans as well as Japanese Russians, Brits, French, and Germans.
Open Door Policy approvd giving all nations equal access to trading rights in China
Short lived political party. Led and founded by TR
Allowed Native Americans to return to local self gov on a tribal basis