1849 - 1897

Civil War

April 12, 1861 - June 2, 1865

Reconstruction Era

1865 - 1877

Lincoln's 10% plan
Johnson's plan (punish confederate leaders/landowners)
Radical Republican plan (harsher on south and more protective of African Americans - Thaddeus Stevens/Charles Sumner)
Congressional Reconstruction (first reconstruction act 1867, divided south into military districts, new state constitutions and oath of loyalty required for readmission)

Political Machines Most Influential

1870 - 1880

Stalwarts - Roscoe Conkling Party Patronage
Halfbreeds - James G Blaine Anti Stalwart Party Patronage
Mugwamps - Other Reps.

Formation of the New South


Gilded Age

1877 - 1893

Labeled by Mark Twain.
New Class born in the pursuit of money and leisure.
Weak unproductive presidents came to power through the political machines of the time.

Spanish American war

1898 - 1901

"that splendid little war"
caused y 19th century jingoism and a fight by cuban nationalists.

Sinking of the Lusitania


128 US passengers killed by German U-boat attack
US denied existence of ammunition on board and claimed Germany violated neutrality of the seas

Zimmerman Note

March 1917

Note from germany to Mexico proposing Mexican-German alliance.


April 1917 - November 1918

Wilson Declared war to make the world safe for democracy.

Treaty of Versailles

January 1919

US never signed because Congress did not agree with the League of Nations and did not want to lose their power to declare war
Wilson's 14 Points

Red Scare

1919 - 1921

Harlem Renaissance

1920 - 1935

Cultural movement in response to racism and race riots in Harlem at the time.Art poetry and music (jazz) expressing African American pride.

Stock Market Crash


Caused by
Bull Market
Buying on the Margin

Great Depression

1929 - 1941

First New Deal

1933 - 1934

Emergency Banking Relief Act

Second New Deal

1935 - 1938

Wagner Act
US Housing Authority


16 - Abraham Lincoln

March 1861 - April 1865

President during civil war. Assasinated by John Wilkes Booth.

17 - Andrew Johnson

april 1865 - march 1869

Lincoln's VP, nearly impeached but wasn't. (Tenure of Office Act)
Southerner, but remained loyal to Union during civil war.

18 - Ulysses S. Grant

March 1869 - March 1877

Not Average.

Elected because he was a popular war hero that identified with the north. "waving the bloody shirt" (reminded people of the hardships of war)
Virtually no political experience.

19 - Rutherford B. Hayes

March 1877 - March 1881

Came into office through compromise of 1877
Forced to end Reconstruction.
Removed many corrupt politicians. Compromised with opposition to Chinese immigrants by restricting immigration. Supported Civil Rights and Civil Reform.
Brought Temperance to the White House

20 - James Garfield

March 1881 - September 1881

Opposed the Greenback.
Favored moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for Freedmen.
Assasinated by Charles Guiteau

21 - Chester A. Arthur

September 1881 - March 1885

Stalwart - Republican political machine. Major supporter of Roscoe Conkling

22 - Grover Cleaveland

March 1885 - March 1889

22nd & 24th President. Only Democratic president in time dominated by Republican leadership.
Elected after mudwamps deserted Halfreed James G Blaine in the 1884 Election.

23 - Benjamin Harrison

March 1889 - March 1893

Grandson of William Henry Harrison
Served in Union Army
Civil Rights. McKinley Tariff. Sherman Anti-trust Act.
Billion Dollar Congress

24 - Grover Cleaveland

March 1893 - March 1897

25 - William McKinley

March 1897 - September 1901

Raised Protective tariffs to promote American industry and rejected free silver movement.
Assassinated by Czolgosz.

26 - Theodore Roosevelt

September 1901 - March 1909

Progressive "cowboy" and McKinley's VP
Political machine never wanted him in power.
Square Deal for all Americans

27 - William Taft

March 1909 - March 1913

Basically handpicked for the job by TR, but during admin. lost support of most progressives. Later became Chief Justice of US.

28 - Woodrow Wilson

March 1913 - March 1921

Progressive. Won election because of split in Rep. party.
14 Points, WWI, LON, etc

29 - Warren Harding

March 1921 - August 1923

He was "handsome" - Became president because he looked like one. Much Scandal in Admin. Teapot Dome, etc
Died in office. (much speculation about cause of death)

30 - Calvin Coolidge

August 1923 - March 1929

Harding's VP, laissez-faire small gov policies

31 - Herbert Hoover

March 1929 - March 1933

Attempted to combat depression with high protective tariffs, corporate bailouts, and encouraging private volunteer organizations. Generally ranked no higher than average.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.

March 1933 - April 1945

New Deal, WWII, Centralized/strengthened executive federal power.


Homestead Act


gave 160 acres free to anyone who owned land for 5 years and improved that land. The land could be bought for $1.25 for 6 months but if the land was not improved it was taken away. This act encouraged settlement, but most people decided to buy more desirable land.

Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

December 1863

granted "full pardon" and property in exchange for allegiance to union
10% plan of Reconstruction - Preserve union! (if 10% of people who voted in 1860 election pledged allegiance the state could be readmitted)

Wade-Davis Bill

July 1864

Created by Senator Ben Wade and Congressman Henry Davis
Harsher alternative to Lincoln's 10% plan (50% had to pledge allegiance to union to be readmitted)
Pocket-Vetoed by Lincoln, too radical.

Seward's Folley


Purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million by Secretary of State William H Seward without consulting congress.
Also referred to as Seward's icebox

Reconstruction Acts of 1867

March 1867

Separated the confederate south into five military districts, each with a union general which would serve as the commanding government. Congress required each state to draft a new state constitution that would be approved by congress, to ratify the 14th amendment granting all men rights and to grant voting rights to black men. President Johnson vetoed these acts but was overridden by congress.

Tenure of Office Act

March 1867

Any officeholder appointed by president with senate's consent could not be removed until Senate had approved succesor.
Pres Andrew Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton Aug. 1867.

-> impeached but saved from removal from office by one vote

Amnesty Act of 1872


Removed voting restrictions and office holding disqualifications against secessionists who reelled during the civil war. Affected about 150,000 confederates but excluded former major confederate leaders.

Coinage Act of 1873


Aka Crime of 1873. Demonetized silver and made gold the only metallic standard in the US, putting the US on a de-facto Gold Standard.

Compromise of 1877


Also known as "The Great Betrayal" An agreement between Republicans and Democrats that settled the intensely disputed election of 1876.
-Hayes became president
-Republican troops were withdrawn from the south.
-A transcontinental railroad was built from Texas to the Pacific

led to the formation of "The Solid South"

Bland-Allison Act


required US treasury to buy a certain amout of Silver to put into circulation as silver dollars.
Vetoed by Hayes but overridden by congress

Chinese Exclusion Act


Excluded Chinese immigration to the US for 10 years so Chinese wouldn't "steal" jobs from Americans.

Pendleton Act


Passed by the Chester Arthur administration.
Established a merit system of making appointments to office on the basis of aptitude rather than "pull". Also set up a civil service commission, charged with examining applicants for posts.

Dawes Severalty Act


Forced civilization on Indians. Gave 160 acres free to indians if they behaved and adopted white ways. They had to separate from their tribes, and after 25 years indians could become citizens. Banned Indian culture. Many refused the free land.
Policy in place until 1924.

INterstate Comerce Act 1887


passed to combat monopoly like power and wealth of railroad corporations. Farmers were being forced into bankruptcy by railroad corporation's rates.
Forbade discriminatory rates.
Led to creation of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

Sherman AntiTrust Act


prohibits certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace.
Limited monopolies and regulated industrial development.

McKinley Tariff


Raised average duty on imports to almost 50%. Used to protect domestic industries from foreign competition

Sherman Silver Purchase


increased amount of silver gov was required to purchase every month
Repealed in 1893 to prevent depletion of country's gold reserves

Teller Ammendment


US would not establish permanent control over cuba

Spanish American War Ended

December 1898

Treaty of Paris

Platt Ammendment


replaced Teller amendment (1898)
allowed US "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence"

Elkins Act


Allowed ICC to impose heavy fines on businesses that offered rebates, especially to railroad companies, and on those that accepted rebates

Roosevelt Corrolary


US could intervene if necessary to stabilize the economies of Latin American Nations

Treaty of Portsmouth

September 5, 1905

Ended Russo-Japanese war
Mediated by TR

Hepburn Act


Authorized ICC to set maximum railroad rates and inspect financial records


Pure Food & Drug Act


Mann-Elkins Act


Extended authority of ICC to regulate telecommunications industry

Lodge Corollary


Corollary to the Monroe doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge
Forbade any country in acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere that put that government in "practical power of control"

Underwood Tariff Act


aka revenue act, underwood-simmons act, or underwood tariff bill.
Wilson's Triple Wall of Privilege. Promised reform in tariffs.

Clayton Anti-Trust Act


Made Sherman anti-trust act more effective.

Federal Farm Loan Act


set up regulations on interests on mortgages ad bonds. helped rural farmers.

Child Labor Act


Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916
Ruled unconstitutional.

Workingmen's compensation act


compensation for civil service workers for wages lost due to job related injuries

National Defense Act

June 1916

Quadrupled National Guard

Wilson Establishes War Industries Board (WIB)


reorganized industry for maimum efficiency and productivity during wwI

Espionage Act

June 1917

limited public liberties
supressed antiwar sentiments

Food Administration

August 1917

Responsible for allies' food reserves/stabilizing price of wheat

Volstead Act


National Prohibition Act

1921 Quota Act


Designed to keep out "new immigrants'
immigrants limited to 3% of number of natives in 1910 census

Washington Conference

November 1921 - February 1922

5 Power Treaty - limiting naval construction US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy
4 Power Treaty - maintain status quo in pacific US, Britain, France, Japan
9 Power Treaty - Sovreignty of China/Open Door Policy US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, China

Fordney-McCumber Tariff


Under Pres. Harding
raised tariff rates
good for big business and reflected returning conservatism of 1920s

1924 quota act


too many southern/eastern Europeans
Immigrants 2% of natives in 1890 census

Dawes Plan


Plan for repaying wwi debt

Kellogg-Briand Pact


Hawley-Smoot tariff


Highest US tariff in history
biggest mistake of Hoover's presidency

4 Day Banking Holiday

March 1933

75% banks reopened following holiday

Civil Rights Act


Banned racial discrimination in public places, strengthened federal gov's power to end segregation, and created a federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

LBJ Voting Rights Act


US outlawed discriminatory voting practices.


Ku Klux Klan Founded


Started as social group but grew into major white supremacist organization. Founded in Tennessee. Lynched people (mostly blacks but some others) burned down houses, and intimidated people into doing as they wanted, so barely any blacks were able to vote in any elections.

Freedman's Bureau Established

March 1865

Organization provided food, clothing, and fuel to destitute former slaves. Managed/supervised abandoned land in South and all subjects relating to the freedman.

National Labor Union

1866 - 1873

First national labor federation in the US.
Founded by William H Sylvis.
Paved the way for other organizations such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL.
Campaigned for the exclusion of Chinese workers.
1868 Congress passed legislation providing 8 hr work day for gov workers.

Carpetbaggers began heading South


Northerners looking for personal gain in the south under reconstruction governments after the civil war.

"Scalawag" starts being used


used to describe southerners who supported reconstruction governments after the civil war for personal gain.

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

July 17, 1877 - August 31, 1877

Aka the Great Upheaval. Martinsburg, West Virginia. Put down after 45 days by local and state militias and federal troops.
Workers for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad went on strike after the company reduced workers' wages twice over the previous year. Strikers refused to let trains run until most recent pay cut was returned to employees.

Knights of Labor went public


Members of the "producing class" were encouraged to join(regardless of race nationality gender occupation etc)
By mid 1890s had decreased in popularity because of political activities.

A Century of Dishonor published


Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, detailed Indian troubles.
Supported assimilation as the best course of action.

American Federation of Labor Formed


Started by Samuel Gompers
pure and simple unionism" Only resorted to strikes if compaies refused to bargain in good faith.
Disregarded unskilled workers, minorities, and immigrants.
"Family wage" to be earned by men.

American Protective Association (APA) Created


Anti-Foreign organization
Urged voting against Roman Catholic Candidates

Hull House Opened


Jane Addams Settlement House located in poor immigrant neighborhood.
Created the line of social work.

NAWSA Formed


National American woman Suffrage Association
Unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA)
Largest/most important women's rights organization
needed to vote

Populist Party Started


Direct Election of Senators
Public ownership of Railroads
Graduated Income tax
Silver Gold Ration 16:1
Gov Ownership of telephones
Based on Farmers Alliance and Also Called the People's Party
Won electoral votes for James Weaer During 1982 Election.
Omaha Platform 1892

Homestead Strike 1892


Strike by workers at Homestead Steel works in Homestead PA. Industrial lockout & strike between amalgamated association of Iron and steel workers & Carnegie Steel Company. Was a major defeat for the union.

Farmer's Alliance founded the Populist Party


Also called the People's Party

Coxey's Army March on washington


Protesting unemployment during depression
Led by Jacob Coxey.

Pullman Strike

may 1894

Conflict between American Railway Union and railroads in the US. Began over wage reductions on members of the pullman palace car company.

Booker T Washington - Atlanta Compromise Speech

september 1895

Booker T Washington - championed education, skill development, and economic autonomy over social equality.

Speech Reflected Washington's idea of race relations but dismissed questions of injustice and white supremacy.

Booker T Washington also had had lunch with president Theodore Roosevelt and his 1901 autobiography "Up From Slavery" became a bestseller. He also helped to organize the Tuskegee institute (an all black state school in Tennesee)

Cross of Gold Speech

July 1896

William Jennings Bryan

American Anti-Imperialist League Formed


opposed imperialism

Booker T Washington's autobiography "Up From Slavery" published


Became a bestseller.
Booker T Washington believed in education, skill development, and economic autonomy over social equality.

Northern Securities Company Founded


JP Morgan. Railroad holding company - Morgan, Hill, & Rockefeller. Controlled most of the US Railroad lines.
Dissolved in 1904

Anthracite Coal Workers Strike


Federal government sided w/ labor rather than corporations during a strike

Niagra Movement (Led by WEB DuBois)

July 1905 - 1911

Led by W.E.B. DuBois who demanded full equality, both economic AND social.
Organization demanded suffrage and civil rights.
Died out by 1911 but was the foundation for the NAACP which was established in 1908.

The Jungle published by Upton Sinclair


Socialist novel portraying horrors of meatpacking industry in Chicago.
Led to passing of Meat Inspection Act.

NAACP created

February 1909

An African-American civil rights organization. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”

Eugene Debs Ran for Pres. as Socialist


Received 6% of popular vote popular with labor and populist movements

Universal Negro Improvement Association, UNIA, founded (Marcus Garvey)

May 1917

Founded by Marcus Garvey to "unite all the Negro peoples of the world" and promote resettlement into their own African homeland. Pan-Africanism, urging return of African Americans to Africa.

Steel Strike of 1919

September 1919 - January 1920

350,000+ workers
National Guard sent to end it ->violence/death
failure for unions - seen as socialistic "reds"

Teapot Dome Scandal


Albert Fall (Corrupt official of Harding admin)
leased lands to oilmen Doherty & Sinclair after receiving $100,000 bribe from Doherty and $300,000 from SInclair.
Sentenced to 1 yr in jail in 1929

Veteras Bureau Scandal


Charles R Forbes (corrupt official of Harding admin)
took $200 millino from government intended to build veteran hospitals

Bonus Army

April 1932 - August 1932

it was in spring and summer idk the actual dates i made them up its late and im tired

American Liberty League Formed


Led by John Davis and Al Smith
battling socialist aspects of New Deal

Huey Long Share Our Wealth


assassinated in 1936
biggest threat to fdr

A Philip Randolph's March on Washington

August 28, 1943

Not an anti-anyone movement, but a "pro-negro" movement
Randolph supported Double V campaign - Victory in democracy at home and abroad. He urged African Americans of the United States to stand up for their democracy

About 200,000 blacks and whites participated in peaceful protest. MLK's "I have a Dream" speech as head of SCLC.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 1, 1955 - December 20, 1956

Began with Rosa Parks being arrested for refusing to give up her seat. Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) founded with MLK Jr as its leader, which helped guide the movement.
50,000 A. Americans boycotted the bus system for 11 months. It took a major economic toll on the public transportation system. MLK urged nonviolent resistance against opposition to the boycott.

Ended when ruling of Browder v. Gayle declared bus segregational laws unconstitutional.

3 Immediate Effects:
- Showed power of economics
- emergence of MLK Jr
Successful build up of A. American political unity.

Little Rock Nine

September 1957

Greensboro Sit-ins

February 1960 - July 1960

Freedom Rides

1961 - 1965

Buses attacked and burned.

Generated publicity over desegregation of transportation.
Carried out by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Freedom Summer

June 1964 - August 1964

Attempt to register as many african american voters a s possible in mississippi organized by the Council of Federated Organization. (SNCC, CORE, NAACP, & SCLC)

March on Selma

March 7, 1965 - March 9, 1965

March for voting rights for African Americans.
1st March Bloody Sunday - 600 marchers attacked by police with tear gas and billy clubs.
2nd March protected by 2000 US soldiers sent by President Johnson.

Battles/attacks etc

Sand Creek Massacre

November 1864

Colorado governor, John Evans, encouraged white civilians "the colorado volunteers" to stage raids through Cheyenne campgrounds.

Chief Black Kettle took 800 Cheyennes to a US fort for protection and received orders to set up camp at Sand Creek.
Several weeks later while most of the men were hunting, the Colorado Volunteers led by Col Chivington attacked Black Kettle's camp even though they carried the American flag and a white truce banner. 700 men, mostly drunk, slaughtered 105 Cheyenne women & children and 28 men. They mutilated corpses and took scalps as trophies.

Red River War

1874 - 1875

war between Apache (later Kiowa and Comanche) Indians and the US army.
Started because of Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 which relocated indians to a reservation in present day oklahoma. Ended with the surrender of Geronimo, with only 30 men left in his army.

Battle of Little Bighorn


General Custer's troops came upon the little bighorn river and tried to attack Sioux indians, but he was outnumbered 3 to 1. His army was annihilated. Reinforcement came later and killed all the Sioux. Crazy Horse led the Sioux into battle against the US troops.

Haymarket Bombing

May 4, 1886

Labor demonstration in chicago, began as peaceful strike.
Unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they tried to disperse the meeting. Bomb blast and ensuing gunfire led to the deaths of 7 police officers and at least 4 civilians. It led to the Haymarket affair.

Massacre of Wounded Knee

December 29, 1890

Calvalry attacked Sioux indians and Ghost Dancers, who were unarmed and also under an american flag. Around 300 Sioux were killed.

Exploding of the USS Maine

February 15, 1898

"Remember the Maine To Hell with Spain!"
Pushed US closer to start of Span-Am War

Explosion actually caused by an eruption of a boiler on board the ship, not Spain.

Constitutional Amendments

13th Amendment

December 6, 1865

officially abolished and prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, passed by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865.

14h Amendment

July 9, 1868

Defined citizenship. Equal protection of all citizens. Due process under the law, etc.

15th Amendment

February 3, 1870

Gave African Americans the right to vote. The concept of African Americans voting was not fully recognized for years because of poll taxes, literacy tests, and intimidation from groups such as the KKK.

16th Amendment


Authorized Federal income tax.
Taxed individuals without regard to population of each state, and ended the constitutional debate on how to tax income

18th Amendment



19th Amendment


Women's right to vote

21st amendment


Repealed Prohibition
Part of FDR's campaign

24th Amendment


Eliminated poll taxes for African Americans when voting.

Court Cases

Munn v. Illinois


Established ma rates for storing grains. Supreme Court ruled that staes had power to regulate privately owned businesses like railroads when they served the public's interest.

Ida B Wells's "Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases" published.


Southerners used rape as excuse to hide real reason for lynchings: black economic progress

Plessy v. Fergeson


"separate but equal"

Northern Securities Company v. US


Company dissolved

Schneik v. US


Court agreed that congress could restrict speech if words "are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger"

Sacco and Vanzetti trials began


Scopes Trial


Morgan v. Virginia


Irene Morgan refused to sit in the back of an interstate bus.
Supreme court ruled that segregation on interstate buses was an undue burden on interstate commerce.

Brown v. Board of Education


Oliver Brown sought to overturn a state law permitting cities to maintain segregated schools.

Court ruled that in public education "separate but equal" had no place.
Chief Justice = Earl Warren

Other Events

First common Carrier railroad


Baltimore-Ohio Railroad

Term "Manifest Destiny" coined by John O'Sullivan


Newspaperman O'Sullivan wrote "our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions"
God-given right to bring benefits of American Democracy to other more backward peoples, by force if necessary.

Transcontinental Railroad Construction

1863 - 1869

Treaty at Fort Laramie


Declared the Dakota Black Hills to be Indian Reservation land.

Panic 1873


Depression due to commercial overexpansion. New York stock exchange suspended and unemployment rose
People questioned rep. party

Gold is discoverd in Dakota's Black Hills


1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had previously prescribed Black Hills as an Indian Reservation

Crisis of 1876


Dispute over presidential election of 1876.
Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel J Tilden
Caused greatly in part by Amnesty act of 1872.

Invention of the telephone


Alexander Graham Bell

Invention of the Light Bulb


Thomas Edison

Greenback James Weaver nominated for presidency


Greenbacks supported renewed use of non gold backed US notes, silver alongside gold, 8 hr work day, and graduated income tax.
Party quickly faded and merged with democrats/populists.
Weaver ran for election again as a populist in 1892.

Great White Fleet


Congress built up and modernized the American Navy

Rum Romanism and Rebellion Speech


Speec by Republican clergyman that insulted Irish-American voters.
Cost Halfbreed James G Blaine the presidential election, and gave the presidency to the Democrats (Cleveland)

Invention of the Automobile


End of Cattle Frontier

1885 - 1886

Closed in 1880s due to overgrazing, a blizzard, and a drought, (1885-1886) which killed over 90% of the cattle. Cattle industry taken over by big businesses setting up fenced in ranches. Homesteaders also got in the way of long drives.

Ghost Dance Movement

1888 - December 1890

Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth


Andrew Carnegie = "richest man in the world" "captain of industry" and genius of vertical integration with his business Carnegie Steel.
Acres of Diamonds/Wealth
It is a person's duty to try to become rich.
It is a disgrace to die with money to be passed on to children. Use wealth to create society with social/economic ladders.

Influence of Sea Power Upon History Written


Alfred Thayer Mahan
Leading spokesmen for age of imperialism, concentrated on harsh realities.
Great powers maintained strong navies and merchant marines.

Panic of 1893

1893 - 1897

Stock Market crashed as the result of railroad overspeculation.
Railroads bankrupt and bought by JP Morgan
Panic lasted 4 years
unemployment 20%

Peak of Yellow Journalism

1895 - 1898

Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Both sensationalized news

Open Door Policy w/ China Began


Secretary of State John Hay

Boxer Rebellion in China


Harmonious Righteous Fists, "Boxers" Anti-Foreigner/Anti-Missionary Targeted Americans as well as Japanese Russians, Brits, French, and Germans.

Russo-Japanese war

February 1904 - September 1905

Open Door Policy approvd giving all nations equal access to trading rights in China

Bull Moose Party


Short lived political party. Led and founded by TR

Russian Revolutions


Dust Bowl

1934 - 1936

Indian Reorganization Act

June 18, 1934

Allowed Native Americans to return to local self gov on a tribal basis