ECE Theorists Timeline

Early childhood education theorist through the years.


John Locke (English Philosopher)

Aug 29, 1632 - Oct 28, 1704

~Individual differences
~Importance of play in early years
~Blank slate

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French Philosopher)

Jun 28, 1712 - Jul 2, 1778

~Children should be shown sympathy & compassion
~Value of early childhood education
~Progression through developmental stages
~Learn through instruction
~Wrote "Emile"
~Importance of play

Johann Pestalozzi (Swiss Educator)

Jan 12, 1746 - November 17, 1827

~Purpose of education is to develop physical, moral, & intellectual skill & power
~Positive teacher-child relationships
~All people have a right to an education
~Founded 1 of the first European schools to focus on children's developmental characteristics

Frecrich Froebel (German Educator)

Apr 21, 1782 - June 21, 1852

~Originated the 1st kindergarten based on play & materials
~ Children have innate gifts to be developed
~Designed 1st curriculum to meet the specific needs of young children
~Stressed importance of teacher/child relationship

Elizabeth Peabody (American Educator)

May 16, 1804 - Jan 3, 1894

~Established the 1st United States kindergarten in Boston, MA in 1860

John Dewey (American Educator)

Oct 20, 1859 - June 1, 1952

~Experiment & discovery learning
~Importance of exploration in active, free-play environment geared to own interests
~Problem solving based on real-life experiences

Margaret McMillan (English Educator)

Jul 20, 1860 - 1931

~Established 1st nursery school in London in 1911

Patty Smith Hill (American Educator)

Mar 27, 1868 - May 25, 1946

~Early pioneer in kindergarten education in the United States

Maria Montessori (Italian Educator)

Aug 31, 1870 - May 6, 1952

~Montessori Method (focus on development of intellect through exploration of materials
~Open Casa dei Bambini (Children's home) in Italy in 1907
~Senses were the source of a intellectual development
~Developed set of materials (self-correcting in nature) for teachers to used in prescribed manner
~Importance of school & family working together

Arnold Gesell (American Psychologist & Pediatrician)

June 21, 1880 - May 29, 1961

~Norms of children
~Concept of individual differences

Jean Piaget (French Psychologist)

Aug 9, 1896 - Sep 16, 1980

~Theory of children's cognitive development
~Learn through experimenting
~Described periods of cognitive development
~Time & experience are needed for maturation

Lev Vygotsky (Russian Psychologist)

Nov 17, 1896 - Jun 11, 1934

~Theory of development describing social process of learning & impact of development of language
~Concept of scaffolding
~Zone of proximal development (ZPD)