Ch. 17

Main

Alaska purchased

1867

Sewards' Folley/ Seward's Icebox; purchased from Russia

Women's Christian Temperance Union

1874

headed by Frances Willard; The ideas of temperance, that men under the influence of alcohol treated their wives abusively; the largest female organization of the era, it gave a sense of empowerment to women and their growing influence on the world; eventual transformation into a women's movement for economic and political reform in all areas including women's suffrage

Congressional Exclusion of Chinese Women

1875

Chinese women were barred from entering the United States. This was primarily because a large portion of these immigrants were prostitutes for the miners of California

Kansas Exodus

1879 - 1880

African-American emigration to Kansas seeking freedom, equality and opportunity; Blacks did not have the capital to start farms, so they ended up as unskilled laborers in cities; however, there were few opportunities in the North because there was a preference of European immigrants over black labor...This eventually changed with the arrival of WWI when the immigrant supply was cut off--> The Great Migration

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

Congressional exclusion of all Chinese immigrants

50+ lynchings occurred every year

1883 - 1905

Civil Rights Cases

1883

invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875 that outlawed discrimination in public facilities because the 14th Amendment prohibited unequal treatment by state authorities, not by private businesses

Tape v. Hurley

1885

San Francisco Supreme Court ordered the city to admit Chinese students to public school; even before Plessy v. Furguson, those who were against this integration decided to create a segregated school system "separate but equal"

"Our Country" by Josiah Strong

1885

An update of the idea of manifest destiny by civilizing "savages" by making them consumers of American goods and introducing them to Anglo-Saxon values; Advocate of idea that US shouldn't be shut out of the scramble of the empires for land

Yick Wo v. Hopkins

1886

The Supreme Court forced the San Francisco city government to grant license to Chinese-operated laundries, because by not doing so it denied them the freedom of opportunity to make a living

"The Influence of Sea Power upon History" by Alfred T. Mahan

1890

Novel spoke of how the frontier had all been settled so Americans must look outward and beyond the continental United States to conquer new regions; Advocate of idea that US shouldn't be shut out of the scramble for land

Miners Strike, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho

1892

The governor of Idaho declared martial law and sent troops to break up a strike in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho

Homestead Strike

1892

Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steelworks in Homestead, Pennsylvania: a fight of LABOR V. CAPITAL
--> the union was seen by corporations as a power that infringed upon the management rights of the company
-->Homestead strike was a failed strike that resulted in many casualties and sent the message that powerful unions and public opinion still couldn't control the largest and most powerful corporations
--> 2 different definitions of freedom
employer = right to property
employee = right to economic security and safety from unfair employers

Populist Party (organized)

1892

Extension/transformation of the Farmer's Alliance; made up of the producing classes; values:
- commonwealth of small producers as fundamental to freedom
- restoration of democracy and economic opportunity
- expansion of federal power
- embraced modern technologies necessary for corp.s
- Federal government regulating them in public interest
- Modern methods of cultivation
PLATFORM by Ignatius Donnelly at the Omaha convention: proposed restoration of democracy e.g. public ownership of railroads, labor unions, graduated income tax, overall greater government regulation
ELECTION OF 1892: Populist made it onto the ballot and had a larger support (1 million+ votes)

Economic collapse

1893

*WHYYYY

Hawaii's Queen Liliuokalani overthrown

1893

economic dominance of American sugar planters and desire for lower tariffs on American market

Fong Yue Ting

1893

Supreme Court case that authorized the government to expel Chinese aliens without due process of law; the ruling in this case set the precedent for legal exclusion of other groups e.g. expulsion of anarchist from US

Pullman strike

1894

A worker strike against wage reduction in Pullman, Illinois; American Railway Union refused to handle trains with Pullman cars-->**something with mail cars*--> eventually it got so bad that Grover Cleveland's attorney general, Richard Olney, obtained an injunction to order strikers back to work--> voilent clashes and protests--> union leaders (including Eugene V. Debs) were jailed for violating the judicial order

Immigration Restriction League

1894

Campaign to restrict new immigrants because the immigrant lower classes were in lower, untidy conditions and had higher crime rates "slum"; presented as a threat to American democracy--> state disenfranchisement measures with residency and literacy requirements

Coxey's Army marches to Washington

May, 1894

Example of clash between government and labor after economic collapse of 1893; unemployed men led by Jacob Coxey marched to Washington demanding economi relief

Booker T. Washington's Atlanta speech

1895

BTW was a proponent of economic self-help and individual advancement
- repudiation of claim to full equality
- acceptance of segregation
- alliance with white employers (saw possible preference for docile black labor force over unionized whites)
- acceptance that frontal assaults on white community were impossible, instead need to focus on building up segregated black communities
"in all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress"--> support of separatism

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896

Supreme court case that allowed segregation in public facilities
-"separate but equal" doctrine: the segregated facilities did not discriminate so long as they were separate but equal
-8 to 1, Justice Harlan dissent said that constitution should be colorblind and all laws, facilities, etc. equal
** This and the Civil Rights Cases represented the Court giving the go ahead for racial segregation

Dingley Tariff

1897

Tariff rates raised to the highest level in history after Republican president McKinley and majority voted into Congress

United States v. Wong Kim Ark

1898

A Supreme Court case that said the 14th Amendment automatically awarded citizenship to children of Chinese immigrants born on American soil

Spanish-American War

1898

"The Splendid Little War"; growing American sympathy for Cuban cause
-destruction of battleship Maine blamed on Spanish
-war fever fanned by yellow journalism
-declaration of war with Teller Amendment: US had no intention of annexing Cuba
-duration: 4 months
--> interest in imperial expansionism
- war in Philippines(Manila Bay) first, Cuba(Santiago), PR(San Juan Hill, TR Rough Riders)

Philippine War

1899 - 1903

Philippines against continued US control, US failed to recognize the provisional government founded by Emilio Aguinaldo--> war:
- bloody and brutal, controversial treatment of civilians by troops
- hopes to modernize Philippines failed, it simply aided wealthy planters and led the rest towards enduring poverty
(Philippines eventually gained their independence in 1946)

Foraker Act

1900

Stated that Puerto Rico was an insular territory, so Puerto Ricans were not citizens and PR was not a state of the United States--> didn't have the same right as US citizens
(This lead to the Insular Cases)

Gold Standard Act

1900

Enacted by the Republican Majority; made gold the standard currency

"The Wizard of Oz" by L. Frank Baum

1900

~ to the Election of 1896 (winner: McKinley) and aftermath:
--> The Emerald City is green for money and represents Washington, D.C.; The Wizard of Oz who remains invisible and rules by illusion is Pres McKinley; the only access to DC is by the yellow brick road (gold standard); The wicked witches of the east and west = oppressive industrialists and mine owners; Dorothy's silver shoes is the money preferred "ordinary" people

Insular Cases

1901 - 1904

Supreme Court said that the constitution didn't fully apply to the new territories, this led to a loss of natural American freedoms in new territories with a government that wasn't entirely based on the consent of the governed

"The New Empire" by Brooks Adams

1902

Because of its economic power, the US would soon overpower all other empires

Presidents

Andrew Johnson (D)

1865 - 1869

Ulsses S. Grant (R)

1869 - 1877

Rutherford B. Hayes (R)

1877 - 1881

James Garfield (R)

1881

Chester Alan Arthur (R)

1881 - 1885

Grover Cleveland (D)

1885 - 1889

Benjamin Harrison (R)

1889 - 1893

Grover Cleveland (D)

1893 - 1897

William McKinley (R)

1897 - 1901

Theodore Roosevelt (R)

1901 - 1909