2013 History Midterm

Civilizations, Eras


2800 BCE - 1450 BCE

--Start: Minoans were Semitic people who lived on the island Crete.
--Shape: They were at their peak at 2000 BCE. Their ruler from whom they were named was King Minos. They were traders. They learned bronze and writing (script Linear A) from the Sumerians. Egyptians influenced their artwork. They made frescoes (plaster wall paintings). One fresco from Knossos depicts a religious ritual in which women and a man leap over a charging bull. Minoans had no defensive walls. They were divided into principalities with palaces (Knossos homed 40,000), which were called labyrinths for their random design. They had clay jars called pithoi which held a total of 60,000 gallons of olive oil. Greece owed young people sacrifices to the half bull, half human Minotaur (killed by Greek Theseus).
--Downfall: Minoan palaces were burned by invaders and Greeks killed the king of Crete. In 1450 BCE, a volcanic explosion on the island Thera put a tidal wave on the Minoans.


2000 BCE - 1100 BCE

--Start: Indo-European Greek speakers settled on Greek peninsula.
--Shape: There were at their peak around 1300 BCE. Mycenaeans were influenced by the Minoans. They developed an heirarchic society and learned to write to write (script Linear B). They were warriors, and had defensive, walled structures for warfare. They were traders, as they could not grow enough food on the Greek peninsula and they needed copper and tin to make bronze. They traded pottery all over the Mediterranean region.
--Downfall: A drought caused crop failures, the Trojan War created internal instability, Greeks invaded from north (Dorian Greeks). Writing was lost.

Dark Ages

1100 BCE - 750 BCE

A period where we do not know about because writing disappeared. Stories and legends were passed orally.


800 BCE - 270 BCE

The Etruscans lived in Italy and came from Lydia in the Asia Minor. They were traders and made art, such as sarcophaguses, or stone coffins, which had carvings on them (i.e. a married couple).

Archaic Age

750 BCE - 479 BCE

Rome's Etruscan Dynasty

616 BCE - 509 BCE

End: Sextus, son of Etruscan king Tarquin the Proud, raped Lucreta, a virtuous Roman matron, at knifepoint. Her husband, Collatinus promised to get revenge, and Lucreta committed suicide. Collatinus and an Etruscan nobleman, Brutus, lead a revolt that ended the monarchy.

Lower classes suffered because they relied on the monarchy to control the power of the patricians (noble families).

Rome became a republic ("public matter").

Greek tyrants

600 BCE - 510 BCE

Archaemenid Dynasty

559 BCE - 330 BCE

The Achaemenid Persian Empire, aka the First Persian Empire or First Iranian Empire, was a Persian empire in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

Persian Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

Beginning of Republic Rome

509 BCE - 287 BCE

Three parts:
1) Consuls- two men had executive authority and were elected annually by an Assembly of Centuries*.
2) Senate- elder statesmen
3) Assemblies- adult male citizens who gathered outdoors and voted on issues presented by leading statesmen

*Assembly of Centuries were army groupings of 100 men each (centuries)

These people were all patricians, old families who made 6% of the population. They were wealthy and were socially and legally superior to everyone else.

Plebeians were the working people not including slaves.

Informal Governance: Patrons and clients
Patrons give clients "kindnesses" (food, legal help, financial support) as well as ritual gifts.
Clients owe their patrons duties (financial/political support). They gather at their patrons' doors every morning.

Struggle of the Orders

509 BCE - 287 BCE

A series of political reforms forced on the aristocracy that occurred because the plebeians wanted guarantees against the abuses of the patricians and the wealthy plebeians wanted a role in the government.
Plebeians had their own assemblies and temples. Their leaders were called tribunes and could veto unfavorable laws and represent plebeians in law courts.
Patricians had to listen because it was the plebeians that made the infantry. Citizen-soldiers threatened leaving military service unless their demands were met.
As a result, plebeians gained many rights called the Twelve Tables.

Classical Age

479 BCE - 336 BCE

Greeks make accomplishments in art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and representative democracy.

Athenian Empire; Athens's Golden Age

477 BCE - 404 BCE

Athens was the strongest member of Delian League against Persia. Athens moved the league's treasure from Delos to Athens. Athens rebuilt the Acropolis. Pericles was elected strategos every year from 443 BCE to 429 BCE.
--Architecture (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian [post and lintel])
--Theatrical competition worshipping Dionysus every spring. (Religion, politics, fighting fate)

This ends after Athens lose the Peloponnesian War.

Hellenistic Age

323 BCE - 30 BCE

Ptolemaic Egypt

305 BCE - 30 BCE

--Ruled by Ptolemy (Alexander's cavalry companion)
--Ptolemy brought Alexander's corpse to Alexandria to legitimize his rule
--Alexandria became the leading city of the Hellenistic world where everyone pursued money
--Intellectual/cultural center
--A museum and library were established
--A lighthouse was built on the island Pharos (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world)
--Ptolemy V's accomplishments were written on Rosetta Stone with sacred hieroglyphics, Egyptian, and Greek (key to deciphering hieroglyphics)

Seleucid Kingdom

305 BCE - 64 BCE

Capital Seleucia 50 miles north of Babylon
Dura Europus (important city)
Controlled Tigris-Euphrates area
Macedonian and Greek colonists
20,000 Macedonian colonists in Syria and Asia Minor

Antigonid Kingdom

305 BCE - 168 BCE

Macedonian Kings named the Antigonids ruled Macedonia and Greece.

A general Antigonus the One-Eyed (382-301 BCE) was the first ruler. His great-grandson was Demetrius II.

In 280s BCE, the Gauls from the north attacked Macedonia, along with the revolting Greeks from the south.

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 CE

Roman peace that was introduced by Octavian aka Augustus, Julius Caesar's grandnephew and successor.

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 CE



800 BCE - 701 BCE

Greek poet who wrote Iliad (Archilles' heroism in Trojan war) and Odyssey (Greek warrior Odysseus traveling home after Trojan war).


650 BCE - 600 BCE

Draco was the first legislator of Athens. He replaced vendetta (kill the person [or his relative] who killed your relative) with a legal code to be given by court that punished trivial or serious crimes with death. It was very harsh. Draconian today means unforgiving rules.


525 BCE - 456 BCE

Greek playwright who wrote "The Persians", claiming Persian loss was due to Xerxes' hubris. He warned Athenians to not have hubris. Aeschylus fought at Battle of Marathon.


496 BCE - 406 BCE

Greek playwright who wrote "The Theban Plays", about Oedipus who was fated to kill his father and marry his mother.


485 BCE - 406 BCE

Greek playwright who wrote tragedies. In "Women of Troy", he describes the pain of captured Trojan women and criticized Athens's treatment of Melos. "Strange how intolerable the indignity of slaver is to those born free". In Medea, he wrote about a woman who wanted revenge on her husband and killed her children.
He also scolded greeks for excessive devotion to athletics.
He predicted the eventual downfall of Athens.


482 BCE - 425 BCE

A Greek historian who claimed Homer and Hesiod shaped Greek religion.
He was "the father of history” who wrote the detailed work “The History” about the Persian Wars. He did not convert heroic deeds into godlike myths, but he wrote from oral stories from his travels.


470 BCE - 399 BCE

A highly respected Greek philosopher who taught Alcibiades. The Delphic oracle said that there was "no man wiser than Socrates."
Taught people:
--To examine one's own beliefs critically
--To confront the logical consequences of one's own ideas
--Wisdom lies in the endless search for knowledge

Socrates questioned and refuted students' answers (Socratic Method).
After the Peloponnesian War, Athenian jurors were suspicious of anyone who opposed the democracy. Socrates was brought to trial and accused of not worshipping the gods and badly influencing the young. He received the death penalty and drank a cup of poison hemlock. "Life without enquiry is not worth living."
Socrates left no writings, but his student Plato recorded Socrates' ideas.


460 BCE - 370 BCE

Greek philosopher who said that the infinite universe was made of tiny atoms.


460 BCE - 400 BCE

A very objective Greek poet who wrote "History of the Peloponnesian War".


455 BCE - 385 BCE

Greek playwright who used costumes and crude humor to deliver political satire. He longed for peace. He wrote "Lysistrata", an antiwar play where the women of Athens force men to make peace by refusing to have sex with them.


424 BCE - 348 BCE

A Greek philosopher who was Socrates' student. He recorded Socrates' ideas. He established the "Academy" school in Athens for Greek men.
--Human world is imperfect
--Goal is to understand the perfectness outside of human world

Plato hated democracy for killing Socrates, so he wrote "The Republic" explaining that the ideal form of government is ruled by philosopher-kings. Student = Aristotle


384 BCE - 322 BCE

Greek philosopher who was Plato's student and tutored King Alexander of Macedonia. "Man is a political animal"
--Ideas cannot exist outside of their physical beings
--Monarchies, aristocracies, republics are all bad
--Ideal state is a small polis with a mixed constitution and a powerful middle class
--Balance, or "golden mean", brings happiness

Three categories of knowledge:
1) Ethics: social conduct
2) Natural history: study of nature
3) Metaphysics: study of primary laws of the universe

He is shocked at how the respectable Etruscan women joined in banquets with men.

Virgil wrote Aeneid

29 BCE - 19 BCE

Aeneid: Trojan hero Aeneas, who founded Rome, wanders and refuses to yield to his weaknessese or his passions and is rewarded with the vision that his descendant will extend Rome "to the ends of the earth."

Livy writes The History of Rome

26 BCE - 15 CE

Livy (59 BCE-17 CE) who wrote the history of Rome and mixed history with myth that defined the Roman Empire. It made Augustus godlike.


46 CE - 120 CE

Greek biographer recorded quotations of Spartan women.
--Mother tells her son to come back from war either with his shield (victorious) or on it (dead).

Rulers, Leaders

Lycurgus introduces Spartan constitution

600 BCE

The Spartan constitution reflected Sparta's conservatism and acceptance of only part of democracy. Sparta was a balance between democracy and oligarchy in which the elders had authority ("mixed constitution").

Solon's reforms

594 BCE

In 594 BCE, Athenian aristocrat Solon was elected as sole archon. He pleased lower classes while keeping aristocrats in power:
--"Shaking Off of Burdens" canceled debts and banned debt slavery.
--Only agricultural product to be exported was to be olive oil
--Standardized Athenian weights
--Divided citizens into 4 groups by wealth
--Created Council of 400 to set schedule for Ecclesia
--Established a people's court for protection against archons


560 BCE - 527 BCE

The ruling period of the first greek tyrant (after civil struggle). His son Hippias continues the rule, but falls to aristocrats and Greeks. This leads to full democracy.

Cyrus I the Great

559 BCE - 530 BCE

Cyrus expanded westward to establish a larger empire. Cyrus conquered Lydia in Asia Minor.
In 539 BCE Cyrus controlled the Babylonian Empire.
He maintained his empire by tolerating differences.
He let local officials rule and additionally installed satraps (Persian governors).

Darius I the Great

521 BCE - 486 BCE

Ruling time of Persian king who lead the Persians in the Battle of Marathon.

He built the 1,700-mile Royal Road between Susa and Sardis for travel and trade.

Constitution of Cleisthenes

508 BCE

Nobleman Cleisthenes stood for popular interests. He refined Solon's reforms to bring a more direct democracy to Athens.

Constitution of Cleisthenes:
--Redistrict the city so old alliances of geography and clan were broken and could no longer control the city offices.
--Everyone was divided into ten tribal units.
--Solon's Council of 400 increased to 500 members
--Each Tribal unit has 50 representatives, elected each year
--A man cannot have more than one term
--No one group could become too strong

Made Athenians practice ostracism. Each year, Athenians wrote a dangerous man's name on a scrap of pottery (ostracon). If a man received 6,000 votes, he was exiled for 10 years.


486 BCE - 465 BCE

Ruling time of Persian king (Darius' successor) who lead the Persians at the battles at the pass in Thermopylae and in the bay of Salamis.


443 BCE - 429 BCE

From 443 BCE to his death, this Greek aristocrat politician was elected strategos every year. Supported democracy but did not permit independent action by certain states.
--Aspasia became Pericles' mistress in 440s BCE, and was suspected to persuade Pericles to take her native city Miletus as Athens' ally.
--Pericles ensured that poor citizens could participate in Athenian politics and culture.
--Paid jurors and Council of 500.
--Used Delian League treasury to create jobs and beautify public Athens.
--Employed 20,000 Athenians

"Our constitution is called a democracy because it is in the hands not of the few but of the many". Paraphrased by Thucydides


420 BCE - 404 BCE

A terrible Greek ruler who came after Pericles. He decided to interfere with the conflict of two cities in Sicily, and so the Athenian fleet lost 200 ships and 40,000 men. Now weakened, Sparta supported by Persia destroyed the rest of the Athenian fleet. Athens had to surrender in the Peloponnesian war in 404 BCE. Spartans and Persians arranged the assassination of Alcibiades.

Philip II

359 BCE - 336 BCE

First great Macedonian king/tyrant who had been held hostage from war in Greek polis Thebes. During his time here, Philip II learned the strengths and weaknesses of Greek politics and warfare, and he taught these things to the Macedonians. He lead the cavalry, made up of nobles (aka companions).

Philip II combined the heavy phalanx with a mobile cavalry and light troops. He strengthened the phalanx by spacing them out more and giving them 13 foot pikes (or longer) instead of 9 feet. He also hired supporting lightly armed, mobile soldiers with arrows, javelins, and slings.

Philip II developed weapons for besieging walled cities. He invented a torsion catapult with more forceful, twisted launching ropes, from which he launched fire rocks.

This was in preparation to expand his kingdom. Firstly, he collected the gold and silver from mines in his kingdom for money. Then, he went towards the warring Greeks to the south.

He led the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE and took control of the Gree city-states except Sparta. He was a lenient conqueror. He charged no tribute, but unified and commanded them (allies). He combined their armies, and they were not allowed to wage war against one another. He then aimed to attack Persian Empire.

Alexander III the Great

337 BCE - 323 BCE

The son of Olympias and the murdered Macedonian king Philip II, Alexander killed his father's murderer and anyone who threatened the throne. Philip II taught Alexander Macedonian warfare, horsemanship, and academics. Aristotle tutored Alexander.
He was very harsh to affirm his rule. When Greeks revolted after hearing false rumors of Alexander's death, Alexander killed or enslaved the people of Thebes.
In 334 BCE, Alexander conquered Asia Minor.
Alexander won at the Battle of Issus against the Persian Empire led by ther Persian Great King Darius III. Darius fled and left his mother, wife and children. Alexander captured Darius's family but respected them.
Alexander captured the Phonician coast (cities of Sidon, Tyre, Gaza).
Subsequent cities surrendered and joined the Macedonian Empire.
In 332 BCE, Alexander entered Egypt. The Egyptian priests declared Alexander pharaoh and the incarnation of their god Amon. Alexander founded the city Alexandria on the delta. He founded a cosmopolitan center in Egypt, bringing Egypt into Mediterranean economy and culture.
In 331 BCE at Gaugamela, Alexander defeated the Persians and Babylon welcomed him as a liberator.
In 330 BCE at Persepolis, Alexander faced resistance but captured and burned Persepolis to the ground.
Darius was assassinated by his own guard.
Alexander like Homer's Iliad and identified himself with Achilles.
Alexander defeated the Indian king, but his army did not want to go on. Alexander cried because of his troops' mutiny, but he turned back with them. They explored around the Arabian sea and reached Mesopotamia. However, Alexander died of alcohol abuse and fever in 323 BCE.
Alexander sent Greek and Macedonian colonists to new cities he established. He encouraged intermarriage of Greeks and Macedonians with Asians. He married the Darius's daughter and a Asian tribal king's daughter named Roxane. He accepted Persian soldiers and commanders and taught 30,000 Asian boys the Greek language and Macedonian fighting. He adopted Persian robes and courtly ceremonies.
He said that the kingdom should "go to the strongest", and so his ruled lands split into the Seleucid, Ptolemaic, and Antigonid Kingdom.

Hannibal Barca

247 BCE - 183 BCE

A Carthaginian general who fought in the Second Punic War.

Publius Cornelius Scipio

236 BCE - 183 BCE

Roman General who fought against Hannibal Barca of Carthage.


157 BCE - 86 BCE

He was the first general to come to power by army support. He was an equestrian tribune who supported the populares (commoners).
--Created a professional army with payroll and promises of land
--Defeated the Numidians in Africa and the Celts to the north
--Sidekick Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who became Marius's enemy


138 BCE - 78 BCE

An aristocrate who supported the optimates (senate). He was a consul in 88 BCE for the Social War and commanded six legions and earned governorship in Asia.

--Sulla came to Rome to confront Marius. They fought in Rome and destroyed the city.
--He fought Mithridates, a king in Asia Minor, who was threatening Rome's borders.
--Sulla named himself dictator for an unlimited term. He killed his political opponents.

Tiberius Graccus

133 BCE

Tiberius Graccus is elected tribune of the plebeians in 133 BCE, the same year he is assassinated.
--Proposed a law to redistribute public land to landless Romans
--Announced his running for reelection, but senators and followers beat Tiberius and his followers to death.

Gaius Gracchus

123 BCE - 122 BCE

Gaius Gracchus became tribune to continue Tiberius's work. He appealed to more Roman people.
1) Built granaries, roads, and bridges to improve grain distribution and create jobs
2) Made grain more affordable
3) Gave equestrians more influence in wealthy provinces
4) Opened new Asian provinces to equestrian tax collectors
5) Placed equestrians in courts that tried provincial governors

Senate thought Gaius wanted to destroy the Senate, so the Senate had Gaius and his followers killed and undid Gaius's reforms.


106 BCE - 48 BCE

One of the rulers in the First Triumvirate who represented the optimates.
He married Caesar's daughter to make peace between them, but she died and they continued to fight for power.
After the civil war between Pompey and Caesar, Pompey fled to Egypt and was assassinated.

Julius Caesar

100 BCE - 44 BCE

--General who sank heavy timbers into the Rhine River to build a bridge for his military to cross.
--One of the First Triumvirate
--49 BCE: Caesar/Pompey civil war
--48 BCE: Caesar meets Queen Cleopatra VII, who joins him in Rome
--48 BCE: Names himself dictator for life

1) reformed the grain dole
2) Established a public works program
3) Colonizes around the Mediterranean
4) Julian calendar (current calendar today)
5) Shrank the role of the optimates

Sixty senators murder Caesar at the Pompey's statue
43 BCE: Coin with assassins' daggers was issued "Ides of March"

Marc Antony

83 BCE - 30 BCE

One of the rulers in the Second Triumvirate. He was seduced by Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and they had twins. Then, He married Octavian's sister, Octavia, and she got pregnant. But he made an alliance with Cleopatra because she could support him better, after which Octavian and Antony resumed fighting over Roman control. In 31 BCE at the sea battle near Actium, Greece, Cleopatra and Antony abandoned their navy and troops to go to Egypt, and Octavian destroyed them. After Octavian occupied Egypt, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.

Queen Cleopatra of Egypt

69 BCE - 30 BCE

Joined Julius Caesar in Rome.
Queen Cleopatra of Egypt seduced Antony and bore him twins. Cleopatra and Antony fought Octavian at the sea battle near Actium, Greece, where they abandoned their navy and troops to go to Egypt. But Octavian destroyed their forces and occupied Egypt, and then Cleopatra and Antony committed suicide.


63 BCE - 14 CE

One of the rulers of the Second Triumvirate who ended up as sole ruler. He forced Lepidus to retire in 36 BCE. His sister married Marc Antony. In 31 BCE, he defeated Antony and Cleopatra and became sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

--January 1, 27 BCE: told senate he had brought peace and was returning authority to Senate and to the Romans.
--Senate named him Augustus (majesty, holiness)
--Augustus named himself princeps (first citizen)
--Augustus established the principate government
--Established the praetorian guard (personal bodyguard)
--2 BCE: was named Father of the Fatherland by the Senate
--Augustus still ran the empire and directly controlled half of the provinces
--Eliminated private tax collectors
--Stationed troops permanently in the provinces

Many things were made in his honor (statue, Virgil's epic "Aeneid")

First Triumvirate

60 BCE - 49 BCE

The first "rule by three men".
Optimates: Pompey
Populares: Julius Caesar
Armies/business: Crassus

The three fought for control.
Pompey married Julius Caesar's daughter, but she died in childbirth.
Optimates in the Senate added Pompey to the Senate, then declared him sole consul.

49 BCE -- Caesar marched his army into Italy.

Second Triumvirate

43 BCE - 33 BCE

Second "rule by three men".
Marc Antony (Caesar's treasurer): Egypt
Octavian (Caesar's grandnephew): Italy and western provinces
Lepidus (Caesar's governor and general): North Africa

Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement in 36 BCE
Octavian and Mark Antony fought for control of the Roman Empire

Judio-Claudian Emperors

14 CE - 69 CE

Related by blood or marriage to Augustus with heirs. Many emperors were bad or crazy.


14 CE - 37 CE

After a victory over the Germans, this Roman Claudio-Julian emperor built a private sporting house for sex and executed people for carrying a coin bearing Augustus' image into a bathroom or prostitution house.


37 CE - 41 CE

One of the Judio-Claudian Emperors who wanted to be worshipped as a god. His praetorian guard assassinated him and declared the retiring Claudius emperor.


41 CE - 54 CE

He was a retiring, neglected relative of Augustus who was hiding in the palace when he was declared emperor after Caligula was murdered.
--conquered Britain
--built 2 aqueducts


54 CE - 68 CE

A Julio-Claudian emperor who killed his family members, and after many attempts, killed his mother. His personal guard deserted him. Nero ordered his slave to slit his throat, and by that time no more relatives were left to become ruler.

Flavian Dynasty

69 CE - 96 CE

Roman Imperial Dynasty of Vespasian (69-79), and his two sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96).

Year of Four Emperors

69 AD

Four roman emperors ruled in one year- Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian. Vespasian is the only survivor.


79 CE - 81 CE

Vespacian's son who finished building the colosseum.

Five Good Emperors

96 CE - 180 CE

Good rulers who also took power from the Senate.


98 AD - 117 AD

Spanish emperor of Rome
--built massive infrastructure
--conquered Dacia in 107 AD and got gold, silver
--built a forum
--libraries, statues


117 CE - 138 CE

Roman emperor who spent 12 years traveling - establishing fortifications and checking provincial administration.

Marcus Aurelius

161 CE - 180 CE

The last of Rome's Five Good Emperors.
--highly educated in law, poetry, philosophy
--adopted the life of the Stoi philosophers
--preserved his ideas in his Meditations (171-180 CE) notes
--spent 13 years keeping border tribes out of the empire


285 CE - 305 CE

An general who rose to emperor and assumed the title "lord" (god), ending the principate.
--tetrarchy government (rule by four)
--separated the military and civil offices
--stationed military inside the empire
--accepted German soldiers
--froze prices and wages
--raised taxes in goods
--assigned hereditary jobs (soldier, farmer, baker, tax collector)


Trojan War

1250 BCE - 1200 BCE

Mycenae/Trojans fight over Greek woman, Helen, who was seduced by Trojan prince Paris. Or, intensifying economic competition and growing violence caused war.

Greek civil wars, new rulers

650 BCE - 550 BCE

Lower classes overthrew the aristocracy. Tyrants, rulers whose authority is based on power, not hereditary right, emerge. Participatory governments emerge.

Self-government by male citizens developed. Corinth had an oligarchy (rule by a few). Athens had early form of democracy.

Battle of Marathon

490 BCE

This was the first battle of the Persian Wars on the plain of Marathon. The Athenians were outnumbered but won due to Athenian general Miltiades' strategy of placement and having a running advance. Death count: 6,400 Persians; 192 Athenians

Philippides ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver news of victory of the Battle of Marathon, after which he died.

The Persian Wars

490 BCE - 479 BCE

Greek tyrant of Miletus offended Persian rulers. Athens sent insufficient support. Persia destroys Miletus and wants to attack Athens/Greece.

Battle of Salamis

480 BCE

This was the third battle in the Persian Wars. Artemisia, Persian queen of Caria who lead a squadron of Xerxes' fleet, saw that the Persians would lose fighting in the narrow bay of Salamis, and advised the Xerxes against it. Greek vessels destroyed the Persian fleet, and Artemisia escaped, saving Xerxes children.

Battle of Thermopylae

480 BCE

This was the second battle of the Persian Wars, when the Persians invaded the Greeks (under Xerxes). Xerxes built a pontoon bridge across the Hellespont to transport 180,000. He built a canal through a Greek northern peninsula to supply fleet support. They go to Thermopylae pass to go south, but Athens and Sparta block them. A Greek betrays and aids the Persians to attack the Greeks from rear. Only Sparta stays to fight, and they all die. "Tell them the news in Sparta, passer by. That here, obedient to their words, we lie."

Persians move towards Athens. Delphic oracle tells Athenians to trust in wooden walls, but they misinterpret it and take refuge in their fleet and nearby islands. The Persians burn Athens down.

Battle of Plataea

479 BCE

This was the last battle of the Persian Wars. The Spartans lead the Greeks and finally defeated the remaining Persian army.

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Athens (navy)
Sparta (infantry)

Sparta formed the Peloponnesian league for allies, while Athens destroyed Melos after Melos claimed itself neutral. Alcibiades decided to interfere with a conflict between two Greek cities in Sicily. Athens lost 200 ships and 40,000 men. Athens could no longer rule the Aegean, and its forced "allies" fell away. Persia financed the Peloponnesian League's fleet because of Persia's hatred of Athens, and together they destroyed the Athenian fleet. Athenians were forced to surrender in 404 BCE.

Aftermath of Peloponnesian War

404 BCE - 338 BCE

Peloponnesian peace treaty:
--Athenian Empire Ended and a politically united Greece was not possible anymore
--Athens agreed to break down its defensive walls and reduce its fleet to only twelve ships
--Spartans left some troops to monitor Athens and sent the rest home to guard their helots
--Sparta's major ally Corinth accuses Sparta of taking all the tribute and being too nice to Athens
--Greeks states in Asia Minor were given to Persia as payback for Persia helping Sparta (Greek unity was destroyed even more)

--Competition among the poleis strengthens
--Corinth and Thebes fought wars to control other poleis
--Sparta struggled to preserve control
--Persia gave money to one side then another so Greeks would continue to fight (as to avoid a unified Greece attacking Persians)
--Effectiveness of democracy in Athens is doubted
--Sparta imposed a 30-man-oligarchy on Athens
--1,500 Athenian democratic leaders were killed, 5,000 were exiled

Military tactics change:
--Lightly armed javelin throwers, slingers, archers defeated hoplite phalanxes
--More Greeks were mercenaries (they were paid to fight) = no more loyalty to poleis

Major Greek poleis constantly had wars or revolutions
People only care about themselves and their own city

Battle of Cheronea

338 BCE

King Philip II of Macedonia confronted Athens and Thebes at Cheronea near Thebes. His son, Alexander, lead the calvary and defeated the Greeks. King Philip II won and gained control of all of the Greek city-states except for Sparta.

Battle of Issus

334 BCE

Alexander III the Great fights Darius III and captures his family while Darius III escapes. Alexander respects Darius III's family.

First Punic War

264 BCE - 241 BCE

Punic Wars- Punic = Phonecian = Carthaginian's origins

Rome and Carthage fight over control of the Sicilian city of Messana. They both sent troops to conquer the island.

Romans designed a new warship. It had a platform so the Romans could board an enemy ship and fight. While Carthaginians used the tactic of ramming ships, the Roman ship would be destroyed but the Romans would take over the Carthaginian ship.

After the Romans won, the Roman Republic received control of Sicily and a large financial indemnity.

Second Punic War

218 BCE - 201 BCE

In Spain, they signed a treaty dividing the spheres of influence at the Ebro River.
They fought over Saguntum, as it was Carthaginian territory but had an alliance with Rome.
Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca attacked Saguntum.
Hannibal brought war to Rome, defeating Rome in the Batle of Cannae in 216 BCE. Carthaginians marched Italy for 17 years.
Roman general Pblius Cornelius Scipio brought war to Carthage. Hannibal had to rush home, and could not gather allies. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE.
Carthage surrendered, gave up Spain, and promised not to wage war without Rome's permission.

Battle of Cannae

216 BCE

During the Second Punic War, Hannibal defeated Rome by bringing war to Rome by land.

Rome wars Macedonia

215 BCE - 168 BCE

1) Romans fight Macedonia because Macedonian king Philip V allied Hannibal after Roman's defeat at Cannae.
2) Greeks ask Romans for help against Macedonian and Seleucid kings.
3) Macedonia tried to regain control over Greece, so Rome divided up Macedonia and eliminated opposition.

Battle of Zama

202 BCE

During the Second Punic War, Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Carthage by bringing war to Carthage by sea. This ended the Second Punic War.

Third Punic War

149 BCE - 146 BCE

Cato the Elder of the Senate decided that Carthage must be destroyed, so they fought again. In 146 BCE, Rome crushed the city of Carthage, and Carthage surrendered.

Social War

90 BCE - 88 BCE

Rome/Italian allies
Social War = war between allies
Italian allies wanted a greater share in prosperity of Roman conquests. After this, the Italian allies gained full citizenship.


Romulus founds Rome

753 BCE

Aeneas was a Trojan hero who escaped from the destruction of his city after the Trojan War. His royal female descendant became pregnant by the god of Mars and had twin boys, Romulus and Remus. The princess' uncle didn't want the boys to threaten his rule, so he threw them into the Tiber River. A shepherd found them being suckled by a wolf and raised them. Romulus killed his brother and founded Rome in 753 BCE where he became first king.

Athenian aristocrats form government

700 BCE

Aristocrats establish a government to control Athens.
Archons (1 year) were elected from the Ecclesia, then permanently entered Areopagus (300 men)

Hoplite phalanx

700 BCE

Hoplite phalanxes became popular and were impenetrable. Armies of hoplites (common citizens with swords, shields, and long thrusting spears) formed a phalanx (a tight formation with eight rows of men deep and as wide as troops available).

Athenian economy weak; Aristocrats lose military control

600 BCE

Small farmers could not produce enough food for growing population, so they fell into debt and slavery.
Hoplite armies caused the aristocracy to lose military control.

Kouros, kore

600 BCE

Greek scoulptors begin to make kouros (boy), naked, and kore (girl), clothed. Both have "archaic smile".

Solon bans debt slavery

594 BCE

During Solon's rule as sole archon, Solon created the "Shaking off of Burdens", eliminating debts and debt slavery.

Twelve Tables are written

451 BCE - 449 BCE

Plebeians won important rights after the Struggle of the Orders that were written as laws as Twelve Tables.

Additionally, Plebeians could now hold sacred and political offices, and upward mobility was possible. Plebeians could marry patricians.

Athenians pass a worshipping law

432 BCE

Democratic assembly of Athens made it a crime to "deny the gods, or disseminate teachings about the things that take place in the heavens."

Spartans burn crops; Plague in Athens

430 BCE - 429 BCE

During the Peloponnesian War, Spartans burned Athenians' crops. Athenian navy knows they can supply Athens within walls, but young Athenians try to stop Spartans many are killed. Refugees overcrows Athens, causing a plague. Pericles and 1/4 of the Athenian population died. Athenian leadership fell to lesser men.

Athens destroys neutral Melos

416 BCE

Athens wanted to force Melos into serving as its ally, but Melos sought neurtrality. Athens killed all Melian men and enslaved the women and children.

Alexander conquers Asia Minor

334 BCE

Alexandria in Egypt

332 BCE

Alexander conquered Egypt and was declared the reincarnation of Amon. He founded the city Alexandria on the delta.

Alexander liberates Babylon

331 BCE

Battle at Gaugamela

331 BCE

Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela.

Alexander burns Persepolis

330 BCE

Alexander faced resistance but captured and burned Persepolis to the ground.

Tribal Assembly

287 BCE

Tribal Assembly became the principal legislative body.
The Tribal Assembly is organized in "tribes" or geographical regions where the plebeians lived. Laws were passed without Senate approval and affected rich and poor.
New classes:
--Equestrians (wealthy plebeians who could afford to be in the cavalry)
--Poor plebeians

Cursus honorum: career path of a successful public official

In the Roman constitution, all citizens participated in the two Assemblies that elected the magistrates who served the state.

Rome unifies Italian peninsula

265 BCE

Ides of March

44 BCE

Julius Caesar is murdered at Pompey's statue by 60 optimates Senators during the Ides (middle) of March because Caesar had taken power away from the Senate

Lepidus retires

36 BCE

Octavius forces Lepidus into retirement, then fights Marc Antony for control over the Roman Empire.

Marcus Aurelius writes Meditations

171 CE - 180 CE

Marcus Aurelius' ideas