First great Macedonian king/tyrant who had been held hostage from war in Greek polis Thebes. During his time here, Philip II learned the strengths and weaknesses of Greek politics and warfare, and he taught these things to the Macedonians. He lead the cavalry, made up of nobles (aka companions).
Philip II combined the heavy phalanx with a mobile cavalry and light troops. He strengthened the phalanx by spacing them out more and giving them 13 foot pikes (or longer) instead of 9 feet. He also hired supporting lightly armed, mobile soldiers with arrows, javelins, and slings.
Philip II developed weapons for besieging walled cities. He invented a torsion catapult with more forceful, twisted launching ropes, from which he launched fire rocks.
This was in preparation to expand his kingdom. Firstly, he collected the gold and silver from mines in his kingdom for money. Then, he went towards the warring Greeks to the south.
He led the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BCE and took control of the Gree city-states except Sparta. He was a lenient conqueror. He charged no tribute, but unified and commanded them (allies). He combined their armies, and they were not allowed to wage war against one another. He then aimed to attack Persian Empire.